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sgrp20231231_10k.htm
0001004989 SPAR GROUP, Inc. false --12-31 FY 2023 False False False False 0.01 0.01 2,445,598 2,445,598 0 0 0 0 0.01 0.01 2,000,000 2,000,000 650,000 650,000 854,753 854,753 0.01 0.01 47,000,000 47,000,000 23,446,444 23,446,444 23,055,633 23,055,633 205,485 205,485 3 0 0 3 7 3 7 3 5 5 25 1.5 2.0 1.1 0.8 0.3 0 0 5,173 8,565 1 4 0 0 no 0 0 0 0 1.1 0 0 0 0 0 Represent loans from the local investors into the Company's subsidiaries (representing their proportionate share of working capital loans). The loans have no payment terms and are due on demand. These expenses are reflected in "Selling, general, and administrative expense" expense in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income Represent loans due from the local investors into the Company's subsidiaries (representing their proportionate share of working capital loans). 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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 for the transition period from                    to                  

 

Commission file number 0-27408

SPAR GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

33-0684451

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

  

  

1910 Opdyke Court, Auburn Hills, Michigan

48326

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (248) 364-7727

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

SGRP

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ☐  No  ☒

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes  ☐  No   ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  ☒   No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files)  Yes  ☒   No  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.). (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated Filer ☐Accelerated Filer ☐ 
  
Non-Accelerated Filer ☒Smaller reporting company 
  
Emerging Growth Company  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the Registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.) Yes No ☒

 

The aggregate market value of the Common Stock of the Registrant held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on December 31, 2023, based on the closing price of the Common Stock of $1.01 per share as reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market on such date, was approximately $7,145,820.

 

The number of shares of the Registrant's Common Stock outstanding as of March 15, 2024, was 24,215,959 shares.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for the registrant's 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

SPAR GROUP, INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

 

INDEX

 

   

PART I

 

   

 

 

Page 

 

   

Item 1

Business

5

Item 1A

Risk Factors

11

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

17

Item 1C Cybersecurity 17

Item 2

Properties

19

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

19

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

19

 

   

PART II

 

 

   

Item 5

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

20

Item 6

[Reserved]

20

Item 7

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

21

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

28

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

28

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

28

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

29

Item 9B

Other Information

30

Item 9C Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections 30

 

   

PART III

 

   

Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

30

Item 11

Executive Compensation

30

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

30

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

30

Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

30

 

   

PART IV

 

   

Item 15

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

31

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

38

 

Signatures

39

 

 

 

 

 
 

NOTE ON Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 (this "Annual Report"), contains forward-looking statements within the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, made by, or respecting, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP" or the "Corporation") and its subsidiaries (and SGRP together with its subsidiaries may be referred to as "SPAR Group", the "Company" "SPAR", "We", or "Our").  There also are "forward-looking statements" contained in SGRP's definitive Proxy Statement respecting its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Proxy Statement"), which SGRP expects to file on or about April 26, 2024, with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), and SGRP's Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other reports and statements as and when filed with the SEC (including this Annual Report, the Proxy Statement and such Current Reports, each a "SEC Report").

 

Readers can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Words such as "may," "will," "expect," "intend," "believe," "estimate," "anticipate," "continue," "plan," "project," or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions also identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements made by the Company in this Annual Report may include (without limitation) statements regarding: risks, uncertainties, cautions, circumstances and other factors ("Risks"); the potential continuing negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business; the Company's potential non-compliance with applicable Nasdaq director independence; bid price or other rules; the Company's cash flow or financial condition; and plans, intentions, expectations, guidance or other information respecting the pursuit or achievement of the Company's corporate objectives. The Company's forward-looking statements also include (without limitation) those made in this Annual Report in "Business," "Risk Factors," "Legal Proceedings," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance," "Executive Compensation," "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters," and "Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence."  

 

You should carefully review and consider the Company's forward-looking statements (including all risk factors and other cautions and uncertainties) and other information made, contained or noted in or incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, but you should not place undue reliance on any of them. The results, actions, levels of activity, performance, achievements or condition of the Company (including its affiliates, assets, business, clients, capital, cash flow, credit, expenses, financial condition, income, legal costs, liabilities, liquidity, locations, marketing, operations, performance, prospects, sales, strategies, taxation or other achievement, results, risks, trends or condition) and other events and circumstances planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected by the Company (collectively, "Expectations"), and our forward-looking statements (including all Risks) and other information reflect the Company's current views about future events and circumstances. Although the Company believes those Expectations and views are reasonable, the results, actions, levels of activity, performance, achievements or condition of the Company or other events and circumstances may differ materially from our Expectations and views, and they cannot be assured or guaranteed by the Company, since they are subject to Risks and other assumptions, changes in circumstances and unpredictable events (many of which are beyond the Company's control). In addition, new Risks arise from time to time, and it is impossible for the Company to predict these matters or how they may arise or affect the Company. Accordingly, the Company cannot assure you that its Expectations will be achieved in whole or in part, that it has identified all potential Risks, or that it can successfully avoid or mitigate such Risks in whole or in part, any of which could be significant and materially adverse to the Company and the value of your investment in the Company's Common Stock. 

 

These forward-looking statements reflect the Company's Expectations, views, Risks and assumptions only as of the date of this Annual Report, and the Company does not intend, assume any obligation, or promise to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements (including any Risks or Expectations) or other information (in whole or in part), whether as a result of new information, new or worsening Risks or uncertainties, changed circumstances, future events, recognition, or otherwise.  
 
4

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business 

 

Our Company

 

SPAR Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("SGRP" or the "Corporation"), and its subsidiaries (together with SGRP, "SPAR Group" or the "Company"), is a leading global merchandising and brand marketing services company, providing a broad range of sales enhancing services to retailers across most classes of trade and consumer goods manufacturers and distributors around the world. Our goal is to be the most creative, energizing and effective global services company that drives sales, margins and operating efficiency for our clients.  

 

As of December 31, 2023, we operated in eight countries including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan and India. Across all of these countries, we successfully execute programs through our multi-lingual logistics, reporting and communication technology, which provides clients value through real-time insight on store / product conditions. 

  

With more than 50 years of experience, a focus on excellence and industry leadership, we continue to grow our long-term relationships with some of the world's leading businesses. Our unique combination of resource scale, deep expertise, advanced technology and unwavering commitment to excellence, separates us from the competition.  

  

Our focus is services. Our team works closely with clients to determine their key objectives to execute globally, focusing on enhancing their sales and profit. At retail, our merchandising brand marketing specialists perform a wide range of programs to maximize product sell-through to consumers. Some of these programs include launching new products, installing displays, assembling product fixtures, and ensuring shelves are fully stocked and reordering when they are not. We also assist with sales and customer service. As retailers adapt to changes and new opportunities, our team engages in the total renovations and transformation of stores, as well as preparing new locations for grand openings. Our distribution associates work in retail and consumer goods distribution centers to prepare the centers to open, testing systems, putting away, picking product and providing peak staffing services for our clients. 

  

We provide the "last two feet" of retail and consumer goods product merchandising and marketing. Our clients make great products. We ensure these products are presented in a compelling and exciting way exactly when and where they need to be to drive sales and margin. Our technology adds to these services by providing clients with detailed insight across all aspects of individual stores. 

  

Our commitment to excellence comes from our people and organizational culture. We are passionate about talent and building a culture of ideas and innovation. We know that attracting, supporting and encouraging our people to do great things for clients results in excellent work. This great work begets more work and creates an energy and enthusiasm for our people and the Company as a partner. We are proud of our people and their dedication to clients and our company success.  

  

We are also a results-driven organization that holds itself to a high standard of execution. We believe that our ability to meet or exceed our commitments to clients and the marketplace are part of how we define success. This is true if we are growing our core business, innovating with technology or testing new services. We aspire to be exceptional. 

 

Our Industry

 

The merchandising and marketing outsourced services industry plays an important role in the growth and performance of some of the world’s most successful product and retail companies. Merchandising services includes placing orders, retail shelf maintenance, merchandising display setup, reconfiguring products on store shelves and replenishing product inventory. Additional marketing services include, but are not limited to, new store sets and remodels, audits, sales assistance, installation and assembly, product demos/sampling, promotion and more. The Company believes that merchandising and marketing services add value to retailers, manufacturers and other businesses by making a product more visible and more available to consumers.

 

Historically, retailers staffed their stores to ensure the store was well merchandised and product was properly featured and placed. However, in an effort to control costs and improve margins, most retailers have reduced store payroll and increased their reliance on manufacturers to set up their own products and merchandise the shelves on behalf of the retailer. To begin, manufacturers utilized their own sales representatives to do this work. Over time, this resulted in competing manufacturer representatives working in the same stores. This often led to the best presentation of merchandise resulting from the last manufacturer representative physically in the store. As a result, retailers began looking for third parties who could manage the merchandising process and ensure that the store, in total, was ready for the consumer. The result was the growth of the merchandising and marketing services industry. 

 

5

 

We believe this industry will continue to grow and is more important today than ever before. With the acceleration of digital and online retailing, the pressure on the physical store to remain relevant, efficient and compelling has never been higher. In addition, product manufacturers are constantly trying to grab the consumer’s attention and make sure they are everywhere the consumer wants to shop. These are exactly the issues merchandising and marketing services companies solve. 

 

Merchandising and marketing services companies work to ensure the store is exceptionally merchandised and products thoughtfully featured while enabling the retailer to maintain margins and leverage payroll. As the industry evolves, these services will continue to be a significant part of retailer and manufacturer success.

 

SPAR Group is one of the leading providers of these merchandising and marketing services to companies across the globe. With more than 50 years of history, the Company has established itself as a strategic partner to many of the world’s most exciting product manufacturers and retailers. 

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

As the need for flexibility and efficiency in merchandising and marketing services continues to increase, both in the United States and internationally, brand owners, consumer goods companies, manufacturers and retailers will continue to rely on third-party providers for these services. SPAR Group is uniquely able to meet these needs because of our global reach, more than 50-year track record, access to over 25,000 merchandisers, breadth of capability, unwavering focus on excellence and deep expertise. We combine great people, an understanding of what is needed and unique technologies, enabling us to offer enhanced service in-country and across geographies.

 

To capitalize on the growing demand, the Company’s business strategy is focused on three (3) priorities: 1) Grow the Core Business; 2) Introduce or Acquire New Services; and 3) Invest in Technology. The result of this strategic framework will be top-line growth, expanded margins, more value for clients and higher levels of free cash flow to allow us to invest for more growth.

 

Grow the Core Business

 

The Company is constantly pursuing new core business services while working to earn more business from current clients. We have a significant number of long-tenured clients that, in order to ensure we understand their businesses, SPAR Group invests resources in people, technology and time, and thus we are well-positioned to meet their needs in the future. This includes expanding the services we offer to existing clients. At the same time, we pursue and solicit requests for proposals ("RFPs"), we actively market our services, we participate in industry events and we continuously look for opportunities to grow our business. We believe our history, relationships, expertise, technology and scale are all competitive advantages for us. 

 

Introduce or Acquire New Services

 

The Company believes in testing new ideas and services and applying its considerable existing expertise in new ways to increase revenues and expand client relationships. The changing retail landscape and need for enhanced digital, e-commerce and fulfillment capability shapes our thinking. Our objective is to identify and introduce new or complimentary capabilities that we believe the market and our clients need now and in the future. To accomplish this, we pursue business partnerships, look for acquisitions and joint ventures and explore ideas based on market trends and our own unique client experiences. Our market positioning provides us with an unparalleled window into changes and opportunities in the markets we serve. We carefully measure the results of these tests and look for new services that can have a material impact on our financial and operational performance. 

 

Invest in Technology

 

We believe our current SPARView technology provides us a competitive advantage in the marketplace and is a core competitive strength. Our technology enables us to communicate, plan, track, analyze and optimize our merchandising and marketing services work. However, we recognize that technology and our opportunity to successfully leverage technology continues to change. As a result, we are constantly adapting and innovating. We explore relationships within and across geographies and businesses with solution providers, while simultaneously making investments in our own solutions, with a focus to provide clients with better results, through our broader capability. This will facilitate our ability to offer higher value services over time. Our objective is to provide technology to field merchandisers, our client partners and our management to make smarter decisions that yield better Company results. 

 

6

 

Our Business Divisions

 

The Company operates through three divisions: Americas, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA). The Americas division encompasses the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil. The APAC division includes Japan, China, Australia, and India. As detailed in Note 10 (Related Party Transactions), the company divested its stake in the Australian joint venture (JV), effective December 31, 2023. The financial results for the full years of 2023 and 2022 incorporate the Australian operations, which will be excluded from the financial results after 2023. The EMEA division consists of South Africa.

 

The total business is led and operated from our global headquarters in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Each country also has regional leadership and offices in the respective market. 

 

Our approach to the international marketplace has historically been to establish joint ventures. We believe this approach enables us to bring the breadth of our global capabilities and tools while capitalizing on the strength and importance of local executive leadership and resources.

 

The following table provides details of the structure of our Domestic and International businesses:

 

 

Primary Territory

Entity Name

SGRP Percentage

Ownership

 

 

Principal Office Location

Americas

       
United States of America SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. 100 % Auburn Hills, Michigan

 

SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc.

100

%

Auburn Hills, Michigan

 

Resource Plus of North Florida, Inc. ("RPI")

51

%

Jacksonville, Florida

Canada SPAR Canada Inc, 100 % Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
Mexico SPAR TODOPROMO, SAPI, de CV 51 % Mexico City, Mexico
Brazil SPAR Brasil Serviços de Merchandising e Tecnologia S.A. and its subsidiaries 51 % Sao Paulo, Brazil

Asia- Pacific

       

Japan

SPAR FM Japan, Inc.

100

%

Tokyo, Japan

India SPAR KROGNOS Marketing Private Limited 51 % New Delhi, India

 

Preceptor Marketing Services Private Limited

 51

%

New Delhi, India

China SPAR (Shanghai) Marketing Management Company Ltd. 51 % Shanghai, China
Europe, Middle East, Africa (EMEA)        
South Africa SGRP Meridian (PTY), Ltd. and its subsidiaries 51 % Durban, South Africa

 

The Company tracks and reports certain financial information separately for the individual countries using the same metrics. The primary measurement utilized by management is operating profit, historically the key indicator of long-term growth and profitability, as the Company is focused primarily on reinvesting the operating profits of each of its international subsidiaries back into local markets in an effort to improve its market share and continued expansion efforts. Certain financial information regarding each of the Company's divisions, which includes their respective net revenues and operating income for each of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, and their respective assets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, is provided in Note 12 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements – Segment Information, below.

 

Our Services

 

The Company currently provides six (6) principal types of services: Merchandising and Marketing, Category Management and Setup, Remodel and Retail Transformation, Assembly and Installation, Business Analytics and Insights, Fulfilment and Distribution.

 

7

 

Merchandising and Marketing

 

Merchandising and Marketing services are pivotal in ensuring that retail environments are optimally organized, products are well-presented, and promotions are effectively implemented to drive sales and enhance customer engagement. This category encompasses a broad range of activities tailored to maintain and elevate the retail experience, including:  (i) resets and cut-ins, which involve the strategic rearrangement or introduction of products within the retail space to keep the store layout fresh and aligned with current marketing strategies or consumer trends, (ii) price and inventory audits, which ensures that pricing is accurate and inventory levels are properly maintained, providing valuable insights for inventory management and pricing strategies, (iii) stock replenishment and rotation services, which are essential for keeping shelves well-stocked and products fresh, especially for perishable goods, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and minimizing waste, (iv) out of stock management, which focuses on minimizing the occurrence of stockouts and efficiently addressing them when they happen, thus reducing lost sales opportunities and maintaining customer trust, (v) promotional event setup, which entails the planning and execution of in-store events or displays to highlight specific products or sales promotions, creating an engaging shopping experience, and (vi) display management, which includes the design, setup, and maintenance of product displays to attract customer attention and promote featured items effectively. Together, these Merchandising & Marketing services are crucial for retail success, ensuring products are visible, accessible, and appealing to customers.

 

Category Management and Setup

 

Category Management and Setup is a comprehensive suite of services aimed at optimizing retail space and product presentation for enhanced customer experience and sales performance. This service category includes a variety of tasks such as (i) category and product resets, which involve reorganizing and refreshing product arrangements and categories in-store to maintain relevance and appeal; (ii) planogram maintenance, which ensures that the layout of products on shelves aligns with a strategic plan to optimize retail space and product visibility; (iii) display and shelf services, which focuses on the maintenance and arrangement of shelves and displays to ensure products are presented attractively; (iv) POP (Point of Purchase) installation and management, which involves setting up and managing marketing materials at the point of purchase to capture customer attention and encourage sales; and (v) display setup, which includes the assembly and arrangement of product displays to highlight new products or promotions, creating an engaging shopping environment. Together, these services work to maintain a coherent and appealing retail environment that enhances product visibility and shopper engagement.

 

Remodel and Retail Transformation 

 

Remodel & Retail Transformation encompasses a range of strategic services designed to update and revitalize retail environments, ensuring they meet contemporary shopping expectations and trends. This category includes (i) store remodels, where retail spaces undergo comprehensive renovations to enhance aesthetics, functionality, and shopper experience, (ii) store department resets which involve the reorganization and updating of specific sections within a store to improve navigation and product presentation, (iii) fixture and banner installations, which contribute to refreshing the store's visual appeal and marketing communication, (iv) pop-up store services which offer temporary retail setups that can test new markets, products, or concepts in an agile and cost-effective manner and (v) store closings, managed with a focus on efficiency and minimal disruption, ensuring that transitions are smooth for both the retailer and its customers. Through these services, Remodel & Retail Transformation aims to keep retail environments dynamic, engaging, and aligned with brand identity and consumer expectations.

 

Assembly and Installation

 

Assembly and Installation services play a crucial role in enhancing the retail and consumer experience by ensuring that products are properly assembled and set up, whether in-store, in the office, or within the consumer's home. This category covers a broad spectrum of tasks that facilitate the ready-to-use delivery of products, improving convenience and satisfaction for both retailers and end-users. Services include (i) the assembly of merchandise in stores, such as furniture and desks, enabling customers to visualize the final product and making the shopping experience more engaging and efficient; (ii) in-store services, which extend to the maintenance of these products, ensuring they remain in optimal condition for display and use; (iii) office setup/down-sizing services, which cater to businesses undergoing changes in their physical workspace, providing expert assembly and installation support for a seamless transition; (iv) National In-Home Furniture Assembly services, which offer consumers the convenience of having furniture professionally assembled in their homes, eliminating the hassle and time commitment typically associated with DIY assembly; and (v) the assembly and installation of fitness equipment, whether it's in a commercial gym setting or a home fitness space, ensures that equipment is set up safely and correctly, maximizing functionality and user safety. Overall, Assembly and Installation services address a vital need in the post-purchase experience, ensuring products are fully functional and ready for use, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty.

 

8

 

Business Analytics and Insights

 

Business Analytics and Insights services provide a critical foundation for informed decision-making and strategic planning in retail and merchandising environments. This suite of services leverages data analysis and visualization tools to deliver actionable insights that drive efficiency, sales, and customer satisfaction, including: (i) product dashboards, which offer a comprehensive view of product performance, inventory levels, and sales trends, enabling quick adjustments to product strategy and stock management, (ii) stock out reporting, which identifies and analyzes instances where products are unavailable on the shelves, allowing for rapid response to restock items and prevent lost sales opportunities, (iii) visit reporting, which tracks and evaluates the effectiveness and outcomes of merchandising visits, providing insights into operational efficiency and areas for improvement, (iv) real-time service insights, which delivers immediate feedback on the execution of merchandising and marketing initiatives, enabling dynamic adjustments to enhance in-store experiences and promotional effectiveness, (v) share of shelf analytics, which assesses the visibility and presence of products on the retail shelf compared to competitors, crucial for strategic positioning and market share growth, and (vi) photo analysis, which uses visual data to evaluate the compliance and appeal of product displays, ensuring that merchandising standards are met and that displays are engaging to customers. Together, these Business Analytics & Insights services empower businesses with the knowledge to optimize operations, tailor marketing efforts, and ultimately drive better business outcomes through data-driven strategies.

 

Fulfillment and Distribution

 

Fulfillment & Distribution is a critical service offering that encompasses a range of services including (i) Distribution Center Staffing, which provides the necessary workforce for the effective operation of distribution centers, including handling and sorting,(ii) POP (Point of Purchase) Fulfillment Services focus on the storage, assembly, and delivery of marketing and promotional materials directly to retail locations, ensuring that displays are ready and available for immediate use, (iii) Kiosk Prep, which involves preparing and equipping kiosks with the necessary products and promotional materials, tailored for specific marketing or sales campaigns, (iv) returns processing, which manages the flow of returned goods, ensuring they are efficiently processed, restocked, or disposed of according to the retailer's policies, (v) picking and packing services, which are crucial for order fulfillment, involving the selection of the correct products from inventory and packing them for shipment to the customer or retail outlet, and (vi) inventory services which provide comprehensive management of stock levels, including tracking, auditing, and reporting, to ensure inventory accuracy and availability. Together, these Fulfillment & Distribution services play an essential role in optimizing our customers' supply chain, enhancing their customers' satisfaction, and maintaining seamless operations from warehouse to consumer.

 

Our Customers

 

The Company currently represents numerous manufacturers and/or retail clients in a wide range of retail segments and stores worldwide, and its customers (which it refers to as "clients") include the following markets:

 

Retail segments served include:

 

  Mass Merchandisers
  Grocery
 

HBA

  Pharmacies
 

Discount

 

Dollar

 

Convenience

 

Cash and Carry

 

Home Improvement

 

Consumer Electronics

 

Automotive

 

Office Supply

 

Independents

 

9

 

Manufacturer segments served include:

 

 

Personal Technology

 

Consumer Electronics

 

Beverage

 

Household Products

 

Consumables

 

Financial Products

 

Automotive Aftermarket

 

It is important to note that we also work across all channels: retail and online. Our services make it possible for clients to ensure the online orders can be filled from stores and that the pricing is competitive in individual markets.

 

We are proud to serve some of the world’s most exciting brands and leading retail businesses. In many cases, our clients cross over geographical boundaries and we provide services to support their business around the world. 

 

The Company did not have any clients that represented 10% or more of the Company's net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

Trademarks and Technology Licensing

 

The Company has numerous registered trademarks. Certain of the Company's "SPAR" trademarks (the "Licensed Marks") are licensed: (i) for use by affiliated companies in the United States royalty free and in perpetuity pursuant to license agreements that commenced in 1999 (ii) for use by its wholly-owned subsidiaries worldwide royalty free and in perpetuity pursuant to informal license arrangements; (iii) for use by joint venture subsidiaries in their respective jurisdictions pursuant to license agreements for limited terms (executed contemporaneously with their respective joint venture agreements); and (iv) for use by the Independent Field Vendor and Independent Field Administrator respectively providing Field Administrators through December 2022 and providing Field Specialists to the Company domestically in the United States for limited terms and modest royalties pursuant to license agreements with (each as defined below). Portions of the Company's proprietary scheduling, tracking, coordination, reporting and expense software (the "Co-Owned Software") currently included in the Company's technology are co-owned by the Company, SPAR Business Services, Inc. ("SBS") and SPAR InfoTech, Inc. ("Infotech"). The Company's global technology systems (including the Co-Owned Software) were maintained and further developed and improved by the Company at its own expense at a cost of $1.0 million in 2023 and $1.5 million in 2022, respectively. Except for SBS and Infotech (they do not need such software licenses because of their co-ownership), each subsidiary and field vendor trademark license and arrangement also licenses the Co-Owned Software to the licensee. 

 

Our Labor Force

 

Worldwide, the Company utilized a labor force in 2023 of up to approximately 24,288 people depending on seasonality, including the services of Field Specialists and Field Administrators provided by independent third parties. 

  

The Company executes and administers its field services in the USA through the services of field merchandising, auditing, assembly and other field personnel (each a "Field Specialist"), substantially all of whom are provided to the Company and engaged by independent third parties and located, scheduled, deployed and administered domestically through the services of local, regional, district and other personnel (each a "Field Administrator"). Substantially all of its Field Administrators in the USA were in turn employed by other independent third parties through December 2022 and by the Company thereafter. 

  

As of December 31, 2023, the Company's labor force in the Americas totaled approximately 17,032 including the services of Field Specialists and Field Administrators furnished by independent third parties. The Company employed in Americas a labor force of 462 full-time employees and 79 part-time employees engaged in operations. In the Company's Americas Division, the Company's merchandising, audit, assembly and other services for its clients are performed by Field Specialists, and the services of a significant portion of them (approximately 16,491) were supplied to the Company by an independent vendor (the "Independent Field Vendor"). The services of a significant portion of the Field Administrators who supervise the Field Specialists (approximately 60) were provided to the Company in the USA by an independent vendor (the "Independent Field Administrator") through December 2023 and by the Company thereafter. 

  

10

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company's Asia-Pacific Division's labor force totaled approximately 2,001 including the services of field personnel and others furnished by independent third parties. Foreign subsidiaries employed 209 full-time and part-time employees. The Company's Asia-Pacific Division's field force consisted of approximately 1,660 Field Specialists engaged locally by our foreign subsidiaries in their respective international operations.  

  

As of December 31, 2023, the Company's EMEA Division's labor force totaled approximately 5,255 including the services of field personnel and others furnished by independent third parties. Foreign subsidiaries employed 713 full-time and part-time employees. The Company's EMEA Division's field force consisted of approximately 4,400 Field Specialists engaged locally by our foreign subsidiaries in their respective international operations.  

  

The Company continues to evaluate its business model of using third-party independent contractors as Field Specialists (whether or not provided by others) in light of changing client requirements and legal and regulatory environments.  

  

The Company considers its relations with its own employees and independent vendors to be generally good. 

 

Our Competition

 

The marketing services industry is highly competitive. The Company's competition in all-markets arise from a number of large enterprises. The Company also competes with a large number of relatively small enterprises with specific client, channel or geographic coverage, as well as with the internal marketing and merchandising operations of its existing and prospective clients. The Company believes that the principal competitive factors within its industry include breadth and quality of client services, cost, development and deployment of technology, the ability to execute specific client priorities rapidly and consistently over a wide geographic area, and the ability to ideate and operate as a business partner delivering value above basic services. The Company believes that its current structure favorably addresses these factors and establishes it as a leader in many retailer and manufacturer verticals. The Company also believes it has the ability to execute major national and international initiatives and develop and administer national and international manufacturer programs. 

 

Corporate Website

 

The Company's website can be found at: http://www.sparinc.com, and the Company's SEC filings are available on that website under the Investors Relations section.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors 

 

Investing in SGRP's common stock ("SGRP Common Stock") is subject to a number of Risks that could cause the Company's actual results to differ materially from those projected or otherwise expected in any forward-looking statements or other information (see Forward-Looking Statements immediately preceding Part I, above). 

  

You should carefully review and consider the following Risks, but you should not place undue reliance on any of them. All forward-looking statements and other information attributable to the Company or persons acting on its behalf are expressly subject to and qualified by all such Risks. 

  

Those Risks reflect our expectations, views and assumptions only as of the date of this Annual Report, and the Company does not intend, assume any obligation, or promise to publicly update or revise any such Risk or information (in whole or in part), whether as a result of new information, new or worsening Risks or uncertainties, changed circumstances, future events, recognition, or otherwise. 

 

The markets we operate in are cyclical and subject to the effects of economic downturns.

 

The markets in which the Company operates are cyclical and subject to the effects of economic downturns. The current political, social and economic conditions, including the impact of terrorism and COVID-19 on consumer and business behavior, make it difficult for the Company, its vendors and its clients to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. Substantially all of the Company's key clients are either retailers, manufacturers or those seeking to do product merchandising at retailers. Should the retail or manufacturing industries experience a significant economic downturn, the resultant reduction in product sales could decrease the Company's revenues. The Company also has risks associated with its clients changing their business plans and/or reducing their third-party services' budgets in response to economic conditions, which could also decrease the Company's revenues. Such revenue decreases could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition. 

 

11

 

We can be adversely affected if governments pass legislation that mandates an increase in wages, changes labor laws or otherwise drives market behavior that negatively impacts the business or operations of SPAR Group or our clients.

 

The Company has operations in nine distinct countries and relies on independent contractors as well as other third-party providers to perform work. There is risk that any government legislation that restricts travel, changes labor laws, impacts wages or otherwise incentivizes behavior that negatively impacts our business or our clients could impact our business.  

  

The Company continues to analyze various aspects of potential business impact driven by any legislation in all of the countries we operate. While we do not foresee any material impact in the short-term, the Company will continue to monitor and manage the business accordingly. 

 

Our business depends on variable client projects that can shift from period to period, be delayed, be canceled or otherwise require us to assume higher costs to perform the work.

 

The Company has experienced and, in the future, may experience fluctuations in quarterly operating results and cash flow. Factors that may cause the Company's quarterly operating results and cash flow to vary from time to time and may result in reduced revenue and profits include: (i) the number of active client projects; (ii) seasonality of client products; (iii) client delays, changes and cancellations in projects; (iv) staffing requirements, indemnifications, risk allocations, primary insurance coverages, intellectual property claims and other contractual provisions and concessions demanded by clients that are unilateral, unreasonable and very time consuming to review and attempt to negotiate; (v) the timing requirements of client projects; (vi) the completion of major client projects; (vii) the timing of new engagements; (viii) the timing of personnel cost increases; (ix) service locations and conditions with higher than contemplated personnel costs (remote areas, weather and health closures, higher minimum wages, higher skill sets required, etc.); and (x) the loss of major clients. In addition, the Company is subject to revenue or profit uncertainties resulting from factors such as unprofitable client work and the failure of clients to pay. These revenue fluctuations could materially and adversely affect the Company or its performance or condition, whether actual or as planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected. 

 

Our business could be adversely affected if retailers and manufacturers elect to perform merchandising and marketing services with their own resources or if they have less stores that need our services.

 

The business and growth of the Company depends in part on the continued outsourcing of merchandising and marketing services, which the Company believes has increased from the consolidation of retailers and manufacturers, as well as the desire to seek outsourcing specialists to reduce fixed operation expenses and concentrate internal staff on customer service and sales. There can be no assurance that this outsourcing will continue, as companies may elect to perform such services internally. 

  

In addition, retailers with physical store locations are facing increasing consolidation and competition from eCommerce/virtual stores. The Company's business and growth depends in part on the continuing need for in-store merchandising of products and the continuing success of retailers with physical store locations. There can be no assurance that the in-store merchandising of products will increase or even continue at current levels or that retailers with physical store locations will continue to compete successfully in those stores, and some retailers are shifting their sales focus to their virtual online stores. 

  

A significant decrease in such need for in-store merchandising or success of such physical stores could significantly decrease the Company's revenues and such decreased revenues could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition, whether actual or as planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected. 

 

We do work with furniture and other related assembly services at stores, in homes and in offices.
 

The Company's technicians assemble furniture and other products in the stores, homes and offices of customers. Working at a customer's store, home or office could give rise to claims against the Company for errors, omissions or misconduct by those technicians, including (without limitation) objectional behavior, harassment, personal injury, death, damage to or theft of customer property, or other civil or criminal misconduct by such technicians. Claims also could be made against the Company as a result of its involvement in such assembly services due to (among other things) product assembly errors and omissions, product defects, deficiencies, breakdowns or collapse, products that are not merchantable or fit for their particular purpose, products that do not conform to published specifications or satisfy customer expectations, or products that cause personal injury, death or property damage, in each case whether actual, alleged or perceived by customers, and irrespective of how much time may have passed since such assembly. If such claims are asserted and adversely determined against the Company, then to the extent such claims are not covered by indemnification from the product's seller or manufacturer or by insurance, they could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition.

 

12

 

We depend upon third-party independent contractors and the services they provide.

 

The success of the Company's business in the USA is dependent upon the successful execution and administration of its domestic field services through the services of Field Specialists, and a significant portion of them are provided to the Company and are engaged by the Independent Field Vendor and located, scheduled, deployed and administered domestically through the services of Field Administrators (who were provided by an independent vendor through December 2022 and by the Company thereafter). The inability to identify, engage and successfully administer its domestic field services through qualified Field Specialists and Field Administrators could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition.

 

A significant portion of the services of the Field Specialists provided to the Company are supplied by the Independent Field Vendor. It is possible that the appropriateness of the treatment of those Field Specialists as independent contractors by the Independent Field Vendor will be periodically subject to legal review or challenge by various states and others. The Company, in its discretion, may review and decide each request by its Independent Field Vendor for reimbursement of its legal defense expenses on a case-by-case basis, including the relative costs and benefits to the Company of doing so, but the Company has no obligation to do so. 

 

To the Company's knowledge, its Independent Field Vendor is not involved in any material proceeding involving the misclassification of its independent contractors. However: (i) if the Company approves its reimbursement of any material legal defense costs of the Independent Field Vendor; (ii) if the Company somehow becomes liable for any legal expenses incurred by the Independent Field Vendor, any related party or any third party in defending any claim or satisfying any judgment against such parties; (iii) if the Company somehow becomes liable through any judicial determination for any judgment against the Independent Field Vendor, or any related party or other vendor or service provider (in whole or in part); or (iv) if any such proceeding or matter causes: (A) any decrease in the Independent Field Vendor's performance (quality or otherwise); (B) any inability by the Independent Field Vendor to execute the services for the Company or to continue with its present business model; or (C) any increase in the Company's use of employees (rather than independent contractors) as its domestic Field Specialists; then any of the foregoing, in whole or in part, could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition.

 

There can be no assurance that plaintiffs or someone else will not claim that the Company is liable (under applicable law, through reimbursement or indemnification, or otherwise) for any judgment or similar amount imposed against any provider of Field Specialists or Field Administrators to the Company, which the Company would defend vigorously if pursued. There can be no assurance that the Company would be able to successfully defend any such claim. Any imposition of liability on the Company for any such judgment or amount could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition. 

 

Additionally, the Company believes that its business model of executing a significant portion of its services domestically (other than in California and in performing its non-merchandising services elsewhere), where the Company is using its own employees) through independent contractors provided by others is equally effective but inherently less costly than doing so with employees, both under applicable tax and employment laws and otherwise. However, the Company continues to reevaluate its business model of using third party independent contractors as Field Specialists in performing merchandising services outside of California in light of changing client requirements and legal and regulatory environments. 

 

We rely on our systems and third-party vendors.

 

The Company relies on its proprietary systems for (among other things) the scheduling, tracking, coordination and reporting of its merchandising and marketing services. In addition to proprietary software and applications of the Company, the systems use and rely upon software (including operating system, office, exchange, data base and server programs) licensed and hardware purchased or leased from third parties and telecommunication services provided by third parties, which third-party software, hardware and telecommunication services may not continue to be available at all or (if available) with the necessary access, uptime, speeds or bandwidth, at reasonable prices or on commercially reasonable terms. Any defect, error or other performance failure in such third-party software, hardware or service also could result in a defect, error or performance failure in our client services. Systems can experience excess traffic and related inefficiencies, from increased demand or otherwise, as well as increased cyberattacks by hackers and other saboteurs. To the extent that systems experience increased demands on current capacity and for additional capacity from (among other things) an increase in the numbers of users, frequency or duration of use, bandwidth requirements of software, applications and users (including the increasing demand from the Company's clients for data-intensive as-serviced pictures from the Field Specialists), or cyberattacks, there can be no assurance that the Company's technological systems and third-party software, hardware and telecommunication providers will continue to be able to support the demands placed on them by such increased demand or negative events.

 

13

 

The Company relies on third-party vendors to provide its telecommunication network access and other services used in its business, and the Company has no control over such third-party providers. Additionally, a cybersecurity breach that results in unauthorized access to sensitive consumer or corporate information contained in these systems may adversely affect the Company's reputation and lead to claims against it. Such claims could include identity theft or other similar fraud-related claims and claims related to violations of applicable data privacy laws. Any system failure, accident or security breach could result in disruptions to the Company's operations. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to the Company's data, or results in inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, it could cause significant damage to the Company's reputation, affect its relationships with its customers, lead to claims against it and ultimately harm its business. In addition, the Company may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.

 

Any such software, hardware or service unavailability or unreasonable pricing or terms, defect, error or other performance failure in such third-party software, hardware or service, increased capacity demands, disruption in services, security breach or protective measures could increase the Company's costs of operation and reduce its efficiency and performance, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition, whether actual or as planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected.

 

Our stock is subject to volatility and general market risk.

 

The market price of SGRP Common Stock has historically experienced and may continue to experience significant volatility. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the sale price of SGRP Common Stock fluctuated from $0.70 to $1.40 per share. The Company believes that its Common Stock is subject to wide price fluctuations due to (among other things) the following:

 

 

The relatively small public float and corresponding thin trading market for SGRP Common Stock, attributable to (among other things) the large block of voting shares beneficially owned by the Company's Majority Stockholders (as defined below) and generally low trading volumes, and that thin trading market may cause small trades to have significant impacts on SGRP Common Stock price.

 

  The substantial beneficial ownership of the Company's voting stock and potential control by Mr. Robert G. Brown and Mr. William H. Bartels and related parties (the "Majority Stockholders"). See Our significant stockholders may take actions, subject to the restrictions of the Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement ("CIC Agreement”) and our By-Laws, Item 3 -- Legal Proceedings, below, Note 6 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Commitments and Contingencies, and Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Related Party Transactions - (including Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement), below.

 

 

Any announcement, estimate or disclosure by the Company, or any projection or other claim or pronouncement by any of the Company's competitors or any financial analyst, commentator, blogger or other person, respecting: (i) any new service created or improved, significant contract, business acquisition or relationship, or other publicized development by the Company or any of its competitors; or (ii) any change, fluctuation or other development in the Company's actual, estimated or desired affiliates, assets, business, clients, capital, cash flow, credit, expenses, financial condition, income, legal costs, liabilities, liquidity, locations, marketing, operations, prospects, sales, strategies, taxation or other achievement, results or condition or in those of any of the Company's competitors, in each case irrespective of accuracy or validity and whether or not adverse or material.

 

 

The general volatility of stock markets, consumer and investor confidence, and the general state of the economy (which often affect the prices of stock issued by the Corporation and many others without regard to financial results or condition).

 

If the Corporation issues (other than at fair market value for cash) or the Majority Stockholders sell a large number of shares of SGRP Common Stock, or if the market perceives such an issuance or sale is likely or imminent, the market price of SGRP Common Stock could decline.

 

The Corporation had in place a 2022 Stock Repurchase Program (as defined and described in Item 5 - Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities, below), which ended in May 24, 2023. Repurchases by the Corporation could adversely affect the market liquidity of the SGRP Common Stock.

 

In addition, the volatility in the market price of SGRP Common Stock could lead to class action securities litigation that could in turn impose substantial costs on the Company, divert management's attention and resources from the day-to-day operations of the Company's business and harm the Corporation's stock price, the Company or its performance or condition.

 

14

 

As a small company with stock price volatility, our stock may be de-listed from NASDAQ.

 

There can be no assurance that the Corporation will be able to comply in the future with Nasdaq's Board Independence Rule, Audit Committee Composition Rule, Bid Price Rule or other Nasdaq continued listing requirements. See Our significant stockholders may take actions, subject to the restrictions of the Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement ("CIC Agreement") and our By-Laws, below. If the Corporation fails to satisfy the applicable continued listing requirement again in the future, Nasdaq may commence delisting procedures against the Corporation (during which the Corporation may have additional time of up to six (6) months to appeal and correct its non-compliance). If the SGRP Common Stock shares were ultimately delisted by Nasdaq, trading of the SGRP Common Stock could be limited to "over-the-counter" trades and the market liquidity of the SGRP Common Stock could be adversely affected, which could result in a decrease in the market price of the SGRP Common Stock due to (among other things) the potential for increased spreads between bids and asks, lower trading volumes and reporting delays in over-the-counter trades and the negative implications and perceptions that could arise from such a delisting

 

In addition to the foregoing, if the SGRP Common Stock is delisted from Nasdaq and is traded on the over-the-counter market, the "penny stock" rules, if applicable, could adversely affect the market price of the SGRP Common Stock and increase the transaction costs to sell those shares. The SEC has adopted specific rules regulating "penny stock", including additional risk disclosure requirements by broker dealers. If applicable in the future, the penny stock rules may also restrict the ability of broker-dealers to sell the SGRP Common Stock and may adversely affect the ability of investors to sell their shares.

 

We have inherent risk of failure to maintain effective internal controls.

 

Establishing and maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosures are necessary for the Company to provide reliable financial and other reporting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted and applicable securities and other laws in the United States and all other countries in which we operate. Because of its inherent limitations, internal controls over financial and other reporting are not intended to provide absolute assurance that the Company could prevent or detect a misstatement of its financial statements or other reports or any misconduct or fraud. Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial and disclosure reporting could limit the Company's ability to report its financial results and file its other reports accurately and timely or to detect and prevent misconduct or fraud. A significant financial or disclosure reporting failure or material weakness in internal control over financial or other reporting could cause a loss of investor confidence and a decline in the market price of the SGRP Common Stock. The Company's management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal controls over its financial reporting, as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act.

 

Our business is dependent on client payments, business performance and broad economic shifts, and we may be at risk of liquidity constraints and not satisfying all of our credit facility covenants.

 

Our business and cash flow can be adversely affected by adverse changes in our client payments, our business performance and broad economic shifts. There can be no assurances that in the future the Company will not violate covenants of its current or future credit facilities; and if it does violate them, that the Company's lenders will waive any violations of such covenants affecting the Company's ability to maintain adequate lines of credit or sufficient availability under its lines of credit. Accordingly, minimal profitability by the Company, additional one-time charges and changes in the composition and quality of its borrowing base, as well as any failure to maintain sufficient availability or lines of credit from the Company's lenders (which may involve their subjective judgment), could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition, whether actual or as planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected.

 

15

 

Our business and stock liquidity and market value could be adversely affected if we settle outstanding litigation by making payments or issuing stock.

 

The timing, size and success of litigation settlement efforts and any associated capital commitments cannot be readily predicted. Future litigation settlements may be financed by issuing shares of the SGRP Common Stock (directly or through convertible securities), cash or a combination thereof. If the SGRP Common Stock does not maintain a sufficient market value, or if potential litigants are otherwise unwilling to accept the SGRP Common Stock as part of the consideration for the settlement of their litigation, the Company may be required to obtain additional capital through debt or equity financings. To the extent the SGRP Common Stock is used for all or a portion of the consideration to be paid for legal settlements, dilution may be experienced by existing stockholders. In addition, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain the additional financing it may need for litigation settlements on terms that the Company deems acceptable. Failure to obtain such capital would materially and adversely affect the Company or its performance or condition. There also can be no assurance that the other parties in any settlement will abide by the terms or any settlement or any related releases. See Item 3 -- Legal Proceedings, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; Overview, and Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Related Party Transactions (including Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement), below.

 

Our business performance is connected to the experience and retention of key executives.

 

The business strategy, client relationships and operating knowledge are critical to the Company’s long-term success. We believe we have attracted and developed the most experienced and proven executive leadership team in the industry. However, we work in a competitive industry where talent is visible and other companies may approach and attract our key executives. We continuously review the terms and incentives for our executives to retain them and competitively compensate them to deliver industry leading results on behalf of all shareholders.

 

Our significant stockholders may take actions, subject to the restrictions of the Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement ("CIC Agreement") and our By-Laws.

 

The Company's co-founders, Mr. Robert G. Brown and Mr. William H. Bartels, are significant stockholders ("Significant Stockholders”) and Directors of SGRP and together with certain related parties (collectively, the "Majority Stockholders") beneficially own approximately 62.75% of the SGRP Common Stock and could acquire more. That amount was calculated using their respective individual beneficial ownership, on December 31, 2023, which includes the amounts they represented in the CIC Agreement and subsequent Form 4 filings, the total outstanding ownership (23,446,444 shares) of the SGRP Common Stock on a non-diluted basis as of December 31, 2023. See Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management, in Part III below, Item 5 Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities, and Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements- Related Party Transactions, below. 

 

As significant stockholders, the Majority Stockholders can have an impact on the nomination and election of directors and the passage of other shareholder meeting proposals.
 

There is inherent business risk for a joint venture business structure.

 

The Company's growth strategy for the international markets has been to join forces with local investors having merchandising service expertise, and combine their knowledge of the local market with the Company's proprietary software and expertise in the merchandising business through joint venture business structure. Currently, of the 8 countries the Company is conducting businesses in, 5 are under a joint venture business structure (Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, China, and India). The Company also has begun to use the model in the United States in recent years and formed or acquired two joint ventures, National Merchandising Services, LLC (NMS), and Resource Plus Inc. (RPI), domestically.  On December 22, 2023, entered into an agreement with National Retail Remodel Services (the buyer) to sell its 51 percent interest in National Merchandising Services (NMS). See Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements Related Party Transactions 

 

The Company owns 51% of these joint ventures in all cases; the principal of our local minority investors generally is the Chief Executive Officer, and each joint venture is governed by a Board comprised of directors from both parties. SGRP designates half of the directors for the local boards of its joint venture subsidiaries (other than Brazil where it is 60%), and significant actions require local board agreement. All joint ventures are also governed under the Company’s policies and guidelines.

 

The Company believes its relationship with the joint venture partners are strong. However, there can be no assurance that the Company can successfully manage through inherent business risk due to significant misalignment of business objectives. Any cancellation, nonperformance or material changes of the joint venture could have a material adverse effect of the Company.

 

16

 

We have inherent risks operating international businesses.

 

The Company operates in 8 countries around the world. There can be no assurances that the respective business environments will remain favorable. In the future, the Company's International operations and sales may be affected by the following risks, which may adversely affect United States companies doing business in foreign countries:

 

 

Political and economic risks, including terrorist attacks and political instability;

 

Various forms of protectionist trade legislation that currently exist or have been proposed;

 

Expenses associated with customizing services and technology;

 

Local laws and business practices that favor local competition;

 

Dependence on local vendors and potential for undisclosed related party transactions;

 

Multiple conflicting and changing governmental laws, regulations and enforcement;

 

Potentially adverse tax and employment law consequences;

 

Local accounting principles, practices and procedures;

 

Local legal principles, practices and procedures, local contract review and negotiation, and limited familiarity with contract issues (excessive warranties, extra-territoriality, sweeping intellectual property claims and the like);

 

Limited familiarity or an unwillingness to comply with, or wrongly believing the inapplicability of, generally accepted accounting principles in the USA ("GAAP"), applicable corporate controls and policies of the Company (including its ethics code), or applicable law in the USA (including Nasdaq rules, securities laws, anti-terrorism law, Sarbanes Oxley and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act) by Local Investors;

 

Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and limits on the export of funds;

 

Substantial communication barriers, including those arising from language, culture, custom and time zones; and

 

Supervisory challenges arising from local board deadlocks, agreements, distance, physical absences and such communication barriers.

 

If any developments should occur with respect to any of those international risks and materially and adversely affect the Company's applicable international subsidiary, such developments could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its performance or condition.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

 

SPAR Group Inc. recognizes the increased global cybersecurity threats and sophisticated, targeted computer crime and the risk it poses to our operations. We rely on information technology and data to operate our business and develop, market and deliver our products and services to our customers.

 

Our cybersecurity risk management program is led by our Chief Information Officer (“CIO”), who is directly responsible for establishing cybersecurity strategies and structures and managing ongoing cybersecurity risk management activities. Our CIO is part of the executive management team, and updates our CEO and executive management on a monthly, or even more frequent, basis on cybersecurity enhancement and the development and implementation of our roadmap.

 

We have strategically embedded cybersecurity risk management within an enterprise-wide framework, ensuring that it permeates across various facets of our operations. This integrated approach encompasses administrative protocols, operational strategies, organizational structures, physical safeguards, and technical measures, all tailored to align with the scope and nature of our business.

 

17

 

Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy

 

We believe this integrated approach allows cybersecurity considerations to be an integral part of our decision-making processes. Our day-to-day cybersecurity work is led by our CIO and Head of Infrastructure. Both are highly experienced professionals. This group works closely with our executive management to continuously evaluate and address cybersecurity risks in alignment with our business and operational needs.

 

Cybersecurity risks related to our business, technical operations, privacy and compliance issues are identified and addressed through a combination of third-party assessments, internal audit, IT security, governance, risk and compliance reviews. To defend, detect and respond to cybersecurity incidents, we, among other things:

 

 

Proactively review threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources
 

Perform network vulnerability scans, cyber-hygiene assessments, and continually evaluate and address perceived gaps.

 

Conduct companywide cyber awareness training and on-going new employee cyber training.

 

Deploy a wide array of industry leading 3rd party solutions to continuously monitor network and endpoints.

 

On-going testing and evaluation of backup processes.

 

Perform disaster recovery tabletop exercises to assess readiness for possible events.

 

As noted, to operate our business, we utilize certain third-party service providers to perform a variety of functions and provide certain security-related services, such as outsourced business critical functions, professional services, SaaS platforms, managed services, cloud-based infrastructure, data center facilities, content delivery to customers, encryption and authentication technology, corporate productivity services, and other functions; as well as third parties that assist us to identify, assess and manage cybersecurity risks, including professional services firms, threat intelligence service providers, cybersecurity software providers, penetration testing firms and other vendors that help to identify, assess or manage cybersecurity risks.

 

In addition, we have implemented an incident response and breach management plan which has four overarching and interconnected stages:

 

Detection of a security incident,

 

Identification and containment,

 

Response, eradication and recovery,

 

Post-incident analysis and future preparations.

 

The plan also provides the process and workflow of communication for escalation of incidents to executive leadership to determine incident classification, impact severity, and if and what further actions are warranted. Incident responses are overseen by leaders from our Software, Infrastructure Engineering, and Executive team.

 

Cybersecurity Governance

 

Cybersecurity holds a significant role within our risk management procedures and remains a focal point for our Board and management. Under the Board's oversight of general risk identification and management activities, the Audit Committee specifically monitors cybersecurity risks. Committee members engage in comprehensive discussions with management regarding these risks, as well as the measures taken to safeguard the company's information systems and security, along with reviewing management's steps towards data privacy protection. Additionally, the Audit Committee receives annual cybersecurity updates from senior management, covering both existing and emerging risks, management's responses and mitigation efforts, any cybersecurity or data privacy incidents, and the status of key information security initiatives. Furthermore, our Board members regularly hold informal discussions with management about cybersecurity news events and any updates to our cybersecurity risk management and strategy programs.

 

The leadership of our cybersecurity risk management and strategy is guided by experts from our Software, Infrastructure Engineering, and Executive teams. With backgrounds spanning: information technology, security, systems, programming, and corporate strategy, these individuals are equipped to oversee prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. They actively engage in managing our cybersecurity risk processes, including executing our incident response plan, and regularly report relevant matters to the executive management and the Audit Committee.

 

We carry insurance that provides protection against the potential losses arising from a cybersecurity incident. However, there is no assurance that our insurance coverage will cover, or be sufficient to cover, all losses or claims that may result from a cybersecurity incident.

 

18

 

Last year

 

During the last fiscal year, 2023, the Company did not encounter any material cybersecurity incidents, nor did it incur any notable expenses as a result.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

The Company does not own any real property. The Company leases certain office space and storage facilities for its corporate headquarters, and subsidiaries under various operating leases. These leases generally require the Company to pay rents at market rates, subject to periodic adjustments, plus other charges, including utilities, real estate taxes and common area maintenance. The Company believes its relationships with its landlords to be generally good. However, as these leased facilities generally are used for offices and storage, the Company believes that other leased spaces could be readily found and utilized on similar terms should the need arise.

 

The Company relocated its corporate headquarters from New York to its existing operations office in Auburn Hills, Michigan, in September of 2020. The Company also maintains its data processing center in Southfield, Michigan and its warehouse in Auburn Hills, Michigan, under an extended operating lease expiring October 31, 2025. 

 

The following is a list of the headquarter locations for the Company and its domestic and international subsidiaries:

 

DOMESTIC

Auburn Hills, Michigan (Corporate Headquarters)

Southfield, Michigan (Data Center)

Jacksonville, Florida (Resource Plus) 

 

INTERNATIONAL    

Vaughan, Ontario, Canada

Tokyo, Japan

Durban, South Africa

New Delhi, India

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Mexico City, Mexico

Shanghai, China

 

 

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings 

 

The Company is a party to various legal actions and administrative proceedings arising in the normal course of business. In the opinion of Company's management, resolution of these matters is not anticipated to have a material adverse effect on the Company or its estimated or desired affiliates, assets, business, clients, capital, cash flow, credit, expenses, financial condition, income, legal costs, liabilities, liquidity, locations, marketing, operations, prospects, sales, strategies, taxation or other achievement, results or condition.

 

All previous open and potential claims between the Significant Stockholders and the Company have been released mutually upon execution of the Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement ("CIC Agreement"), as of January 28, 2022. See Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Related Party Transactions, below. The matters resolved in the CIC Agreement included all previous claims of the Majority Stockholders that the Company was somehow liable for claims and judgments by or against them or their respective companies, as well as all legal bills and other expense and amounts.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

19

 

 

PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

The Company's Capital Stock Generally

 

SGRP's Certificate of Incorporation authorizes it to issue 47,000,000 shares of SGRP Common Stock ("SGRP Shares") with a par value of $0.01 per share, which all have the same voting, dividend and liquidation rights. SGRP Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "SGRP." On December 31, 2023, there were 23,446,444 shares of SGRP Common Stock outstanding in the aggregate (which does not include Treasury Shares), and there were 7,075,069 shares (or approximately 30%) of SGRP Common Stock beneficially owned by non-affiliates of the Company in the aggregate on a non-diluted basis (i.e., SGRP's public float). See Item IA - Risk Factors - Our significant stockholders may take actions, subject to the restrictions of the Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement ("CIC Agreement") and our By-Laws, Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management, in Part III below, and Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements- Related Party Transactions, below.

 

SGRP's Certificate of Incorporation also authorizes it to issue 3,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.01 per share (the "SGRP Preferred Stock"), which may have such preferences and priorities over the SGRP Common Stock and other rights, powers and privileges as SGRP's Board of Directors may establish in its discretion from time to time.

 

On January 25, 2022, the Corporation filed a Certificate of Elimination for its "Certificate of Designation of Series "A" Preferred Stock of SPAR Group, Inc.” (the "Certificate of Elimination"). Pursuant to the Certificate of Elimination, the previous Series A Preferred Stock designation was cancelled and withdrawn. As a result, all 3,000,000 shares the previously authorized Series A Preferred Stock were returned to the Corporation’s authorized "blank check" preferred stock. There were no shares of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding at the time of the cancellation.

 

Subsequent to filing the Certificate of Elimination, on January 25, 2022, the Corporation filed a "Certificate of Designation of Series "B" Preferred Stock of SPAR Group, Inc.” (the "Preferred Designation") with the Secretary of State of Delaware, which designation had been approved by the Board on January 25, 2022. The Preferred Designation created a series of 2,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock designated as "Series B Preferred Stock” with a par value of $.01 per share (the "Preferred Stock"). The Preferred Stock shares do not carry any voting or dividend rights and automatically convert on vesting into the SGRP Common Stock on a 1 for 1.5 basis. See Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Related Party Transactions Domestic Related Party Services (including Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement), below. However, the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock have a liquidation preference over the SGRP Common Stock and vote together for matters pertaining only to the Series B Preferred Stock (such as amending SGRP's Certificate of Designation of Series B Preferred Stock) where only the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to vote. The holders of outstanding Series A Preferred Stock do not have the right to vote for directors or other matters submitted to the holders of the SGRP Common Stock.

 

On January 28, 2022, pursuant to the CIC Agreement, the Company issued to the Majority Stockholders 2,000,000 restricted shares of Series B Preferred Stock, which have all vested and automatically converted into 3,000,000 SGRP Shares pursuant to the 1:1.5 conversion ratio set forth in the Preferred Designation and the CIC Agreement. See Note 10 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements - Related Party Transactions (including Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement), below. 

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023, all of the remaining 854,753 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock vested and automatically became convertible into 1,282,129 shares of the Corporation’s common stock of which 307,129 shares of the Corporation’s Common Stock were issued prior to December 31, 2023.

 

Since there are no more shares of Series B Preferred Stock outstanding, SGRP may change or cancel the authorized Series B Preferred Stock, and to the extent it reduces such authorization without issuance, it can create other series of Preferred Stock with potentially different dividends, preferences and other terms.

 

Market Information

 

SGRP's Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "SGRP". As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately 2,360 stockholders of record.

 

20

 

Dividends

 

The Corporation has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its Common Stock and does not currently anticipate paying cash dividends on its Common Stock in the foreseeable future. No dividends are payable on the Series B Preferred Stock. The Company historically has retained earnings to finance its operations and fund future growth of the business. Any payment of future dividends will be at the discretion of the Board of Directors of the Corporation and will depend upon, among other things, the Company's earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, cash flow, level of indebtedness, contractual restrictions in respect to the payment of dividends and other factors that the Corporation Board of Directors deems relevant.

 

Equity Compensation

 

Information regarding the Company's equity compensation plans may be found in Item 11 of this Annual Report, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

 

Stock Repurchase Program

 

On May 24, 2022, the Board of Directors of SGRP (the "Board"), authorized SGRP to repurchase up to 500,000 shares of its SGRP Shares pursuant to the 2022 Stock Repurchase Program (the "2022 Stock Repurchase Program"), which repurchases were made from time to time over the one-year period that ended May 24, 2023 in the open market and through privately-negotiated transactions. Those repurchases were made subject to cash availability and general market and other conditions. Through December 31, 2023, 151,156 shares of SGRP Common Stock were repurchased under the 2022 program and became Treasury Shares.

 

SGRP Common Stock Issuances

 

During 2023, the Corporation issued 387,306 SGRP Shares (including Treasury Shares and new shares of SGRP Common Stock) in support of its requirement to satisfy the conversion of vested and surrendered Series B Preferred Stock (see above), benefit awards and stock purchase plans, including employee Restricted Stock Units that vested and settled with stock, and the exercise of vested employee stock options. However, that share total does not include the 975,000 shares of SGRP Common Stock that were in the process of being issued and the remaining shares of Series B Preferred Stock were in the process of being returned and cancelled on December 31, 2023.  See The Company's Capital Stock Generally, in Item 5 above, and Note 11 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements – Share Based Compensation, below.

 

Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this " Annual Report ") contains "forward-looking statements" within the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, made by, or respecting, SPAR Group, Inc. (" SGRP " or the "Corporation") and its subsidiaries (together with SGRP, " SPAR " , the " SPAR Group " or the " Company "). "Forward-looking statements" are defined in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the " Exchange Act "), and other applicable federal and state securities laws, rules and regulations, as amended (together with the Securities Act and Exchange Act, the " Securities Laws "). 

 

Readers can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. Words such as "may," "will," "expect," "intend," "believe," "estimate," "anticipate," "continue," "plan," "project," or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions also identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements made by the Company in this Annual Report may include (without limitation) statements regarding: risks, uncertainties, cautions, circumstances and other factors (" Risks "); the potential continuing negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company's business; the Company's potential non-compliance with applicable Nasdaq director independence; bid price or other rules; the Company's cash flow or financial condition; and plans, intentions, expectations, guidance or other information respecting the pursuit or achievement of the Company's corporate objectives. The Company's forward-looking statements also include (without limitation) those made in this Annual Report in "Business," "Risk Factors," "Legal Proceedings," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," "Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance," "Executive Compensation," "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters," and "Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence."

 

21

 

You should carefully review and consider the Company's forward-looking statements (including all risk factors and other cautions and uncertainties) and other information made, contained or noted in or incorporated by reference into this Quarterly Report, the Annual Report, the Proxy Statement, the First Special Meeting Proxy/Information Statement and the First Special Meeting Report and the other applicable SEC Reports, but you should not place undue reliance on any of them. The results, actions, levels of activity, performance, achievements or condition of the Company (including its affiliates, assets, business, clients, capital, cash flow, credit, expenses, financial condition, income, liabilities, liquidity, locations, marketing, operations, performance, prospects, sales, strategies, taxation or other achievement, results, risks, trends or condition) and other events and circumstances planned, intended, anticipated, estimated or otherwise expected by the Company (collectively, " Expectations "), and our forward-looking statements (including all Risks) and other information reflect the Company's current views about future events and circumstances. Although the Company believes those Expectations and views are reasonable, the results, actions, levels of activity, performance, achievements or condition of the Company or other events and circumstances may differ materially from our Expectations and views, and they cannot be assured or guaranteed by the Company, since they are subject to Risks and other assumptions, changes in circumstances and unpredictable events (many of which are beyond the Company's control). In addition, new Risks arise from time to time, and it is impossible for the Company to predict these matters or how they may arise or affect the Company. Accordingly, the Company cannot assure you that its Expectations will be achieved in whole or in part, that it has identified all potential Risks, or that it can successfully avoid or mitigate such Risks in whole or in part, any of which could be significant and materially adverse to the Company and the value of your investment in the Company's Common Stock.

 

These forward-looking statements reflect the Company ' s Expectations, views, Risks and assumptions only as of the date of this Quarterly Report, and the Company does not intend, assume any obligation, or promise to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements (including any Risks or Expectations) or other information (in whole or in part), whether as a result of new information, new or worsening Risks or uncertainties, changed circumstances, future events, recognition, or otherwise.

 

Overview of Our Business

 

SPAR Group is a leading global merchandising and brand marketing services company, providing a broad range of sales enhancing services to retailers across most classes of trade and consumer goods manufacturers and distributors around the world. The Company’s goal is to be the most creative, energizing and effective global services company that drives sales, margins and operating efficiency for our clients. 

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company operated in eight countries: the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan and India. Across all of these countries, the Company executes programs through its multi-lingual logistics, reporting and communication technology, which provides clients value through real-time insight on store/product conditions.

 

With more than 50 years of experience and a diverse network of merchandising specialists around the world, the Company continues to grow its relationships with some of the world’s leading businesses. The combination of resource scale, deep expertise, advanced technology and unwavering commitment to excellence, separates the Company from the competition. 

 

The Company is dedicated to delivering a spectrum of specialized services tailored to enhance retail operations and profitability across the globe. Our team collaborates closely with clients to identify their primary goals, ensuring the execution of strategies that boost sales and profit margins. With a focus on merchandising and brand marketing, our specialists deploy a variety of programs aimed at maximizing product sell-through to consumers. These initiatives range from launching new products and setting up promotional displays to assembling fixtures and ensuring consistent stock availability, thus facilitating efficient reordering processes. Furthermore, we extend our expertise to sales enhancement and customer service improvement. As the retail landscape evolves, our team is adept at undertaking comprehensive store renovations and preparing new locations for their grand openings, ensuring they meet the modern consumer's expectations. Additionally, our distribution associates play a pivotal role in retail and consumer goods distribution centers, preparing these facilities for operation, optimizing system functionality, managing product logistics, and providing essential staffing solutions to meet our clients' needs effectively.

 

The Company’s business is led and operated from its global headquarters in Auburn Hills, Michigan, with local leadership and offices in each country. 

 

22

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure of our operating performance and should not be considered as an alternative to net income as a measure of financial performance or any other performance measure derived in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("US GAAP"). Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net (loss) income before (i) depreciation and amortization of long-lived assets, (ii) interest expense (iii) income tax expense, (iv) Board of Directors incremental compensation expense, (v) restructuring, (vi) impairment, (vii) nonrecurring legal settlement costs and associated legal expenses unrelated to the Company's core operations, (viii) and special items as determined by management. This metric is a supplemental measure of our operating performance that is neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, US GAAP.

 

We present Adjusted EBITDA because we believe it assists investors and analysts in comparing our operating performance across reporting periods on a consistent basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our ongoing operating performance. You are encouraged to evaluate these adjustments and the reasons we consider them appropriate for supplemental analysis. In evaluating Adjusted EBITDA, you should be aware that in the future we may incur expenses that are the same as or similar to some of the adjustments in our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items. There can be no assurance that we will not modify the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA in future periods, and any such modification may be material. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in our industry or across different industries.

 

Our management believes Adjusted EBITDA is helpful in highlighting trends in our core operating performance compared to other measures, which can differ significantly depending on long-term strategic decisions regarding capital structure, the tax jurisdictions in which companies operate and capital investments. We also use Adjusted to supplement U.S. GAAP measures of performance in the evaluation of the effectiveness of our business strategies and to make budgeting decisions.

 

Adjusted EBITDA has its limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under US GAAP. Some of these limitations include:

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our cash expenditure or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect changes in our cash requirements for our working capital needs;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the interest expense and the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect cash requirements for replacement of assets that are being depreciated and amortized;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect non-cash compensation, which is a key element of our overall long-term compensation;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the impact of certain cash charges or cash receipts resulting from matters we do not find indicative of our ongoing operations; and

 

Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do.

 

Our Consolidated EBITDA was approximately  $11.4 million and $7.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The following is a reconciliation of our net income to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods presented:

 

   

Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands)

 

2023

 

2022

Consolidated Net Income

 

$ 4,776

 

$ 2,126

Depreciation and amortization

 

2,001

 

2,033

Interest expense

 

1,919

 

965

Income tax expense

 

2,357

 

2,777

Other (income), loss

 

346

 

(482)

Subtotal of Adjustments to Consolidated Net Income   6,623   5,294

Consolidated EBITDA

 

$ 11,399

 

$ 7,420

Costs and other relating to CIC

 

-

 

(32)

Review of Strategic Alternatives

 

544

 

540

Goodwill impairment

 

-

 

2,458

Loss on sale of businesses

 

408

 

-

Restructuring costs

 

28

 

-

Legal costs / Settlements - non-recurring

 

289

 

-

Share Based Compensation   297   -

Board of Directors incremental compensation

 

-

 

394

Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA

 

$ 12,965

 

$ 10,780

Adjusted EBITDA attributable to non-controlling interest

 

(3,022)

 

(4,637)

Adjusted EBITDA attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 

9,943

 

6,143

 

23

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table sets forth selected financial data for the years indicated (dollars in millions):

   

Year Ended December 31,

   

2023

 

%

 

2022

 

%

Net revenues

 

$ 262.7

 

100%

 

$ 261.3

 

100%

Related Party - Cost of revenues

 

5.2

 

2.0

 

$ 8.8

 

3.4

Cost of revenues

 

202.1

 

76.9

 

201.5

 

77.1

Selling, general and administrative expense

 

43.7

 

16.6

 

41.1

 

15.8

Impairment of Goodwill

 

-

 

-

 

2.5

 

1.0

Loss on sale of business   0.4   0.2   -   -

Depreciation and amortization

 

2.0

 

0.8

 

2.0

 

0.8

Interest expense

 

1.9

 

0.7

 

1.0

 

0.4

Other expense (income), net

 

0.3

 

0.1

 

(0.5)

 

(0.2)

Income before income taxes

 

7.1

 

2.7

 

4.9

 

1.9

Income tax expense

 

2.4

 

0.9

 

2.8

 

1.1

Net income

 

4.8

 

1.8

 

2.1

 

0.8

Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

(0.9)

 

(0.3)

 

(2.9)

 

(1.1)

Net income attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 

$ 3.9

 

1.5%

 

$ (0.7)

 

(0.3)%

 

Results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to the year ended December 31, 2022.

 

Net Revenues

 

Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023, were $262.7 million compared to $261.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $1.4 million or 1%. This increase in revenue was primarily driven by stronger performance in the Americas, particularly Canada, Brazil and US SPAR owned business, partially offset by lower performance at Asia Pacific and EMEA and US Joint Ventures.  Foreign Currency rates were also a negative headwind in 2023. 

 

The Americas net revenues totaled $203.7 million and $198.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase of $5.1 million or 2.6% is the result of 51% growth in the Canadian business, 10% growth in our Brazil joint venture revenue and 3% growth in our US SPAR owned business, partially offset by a 37% and 43% drop in our US Joint Ventures, Resource Plus and NMS respectively. These results reflect growth in our core merchandising services business offset by delays in retail remodel projects to later in the year or early next year by our clients. Core merchandising had a strong growth in the US SPAR owned business, in Brazil and in Canada.

 

The Asia-Pacific net revenues totaled $24.5 million and $26.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease of $1.5 million or 5.9% is primarily the result of negative foreign exchange rate movement as well as other extraneous conditions.

 

The EMEA net revenues totaled $34.6 million and $36.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease of $2.1 million or 5.8% is driven by unfavorable foreign exchange rates in South Africa, when compared to 2022 rates. South Africa local currency net revenues increased 5% in 2023 compared to 2022.

 

Cost of Revenues

 

The Company's cost of revenues consists of its in-store labor and field management wages, related benefits, travel and other direct labor-related expenses and was 78.9% of net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to 80.5% of net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022. We delivered a (159)-basis point improvement in gross margins against the global pressure of recruiting and wages.

 

24

 

The Americas cost of revenue as a percent of net revenue was 79.8% and 81.5% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in cost of 1.6% was the result of 2.5% lower costs in our owned U.S. business and U.S. joint ventures and 1.4% lower cost in Brazil, partially offset by a 230-basis point increase in costs in Mexico. These results were achieved through our persistent emphasis on contract pricing, stabilization of market wages, enhancement of our higher-margin service offerings, and diminution of travel expenditures associated with remodel projects.

 

The Asia-Pacific cost of revenue as a percent of net revenue was 74.7% and 77.3% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. This improvement in cost of 2.6% was partially due to operating fully in China compared to the slow recovery from the zero-tolerance policy in 2022, which inflated cost of revenue ratios in 2022.

 

The EMEA cost of revenue as a percent of net revenue was 76.3% and 77.4% for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in cost of 1.1% was primarily the result of the service mix during the quarter and our ability to manage gross margins.

 

Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

 
Selling, general and administrative expenses of the Company include its corporate overhead, project management, information technology, executive compensation, human resources, legal and accounting expenses. Selling, general and administrative expenses were approximately  $43.7 million, or 16.7% of net revenue, and approximately  $41.1 million, or 15.8% of net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year-ended December 31, 2023 includes expenses of approximately $0.5 million related to our consideration of strategic alternatives and higher salary and benefits cost, partially offset by lower bad debt expense as 2022 reflected the impending bankruptcy of a larger client. 

 

The Americas selling, general and administrative expenses totaled $32.2 million and $28.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase of $3.7 million, or 13.1% is primarily the result of consulting and legal charges associated with the review of strategic alternatives, higher compensation related expenses, and the annualization of our investment in recruiting and moving our technology to the cloud.

 

The Asia-Pacific selling, general and administrative expenses totaled $6.5 million and $7.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease of $0.9 million, or 12.0% is primarily attributable to reduction in China and Japan's SG&A's expenses as we carefully manage these businesses in response to the broader economic trends.

 

The EMEA selling, general and administrative expenses totaled $5.0 million and $5.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. SG&A for EMEA was flat compared to 2022.

 

Depreciation and Amortization

 

Depreciation and amortization expense was approximately $2.0 million and $2.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively

 

Interest Expense

 

The Company's interest expense was $1.9 million and $1.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

The America interest expense was $1.4 million and $0.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase was a result of higher interest rates.

 

The Asia-Pacific interest expense of $0.1 for the year ended December 31, 2023 versus $0.0 for the year ended December 31, 2022. 

 

The EMEA incurred interest expense of $0.4 million versus $0.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Other Expense (Income), Net

 

Other expense, net was $0.3 million versus income of $0.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

25

 

Income Tax Expense

 

The Company had income tax expense of $2.4 million with an effective tax rate of 33.0% and $2.8 million with an effective rate of 56.6%, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our effective income tax rate of 33.0% varied from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% primarily as a result of foreign rate differential, sale of membership interest disposition of National Merchandising Services, LLC and permanent differences.

 

Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest was $0.9 million and $2.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

The Company’s critical accounting policies, including the assumptions and judgments underlying them, are disclosed in Note 2 to the Company’s consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These policies have been consistently applied in all material respects and address matters such as impairment of long-lived assets, intangible assets, and goodwill, revenue recognition, allowance for credit losses, and internal use software. While the estimates and judgments associated with the application of these policies may be affected by different assumptions or conditions, the Company believes the estimates and judgments associated with the reported amounts are appropriate under the circumstances.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets, Intangible Assets, and Goodwill

 

The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that the carrying amounts of the Company’s property and equipment and may not be recoverable. When indicators of potential impairment exist, the Company assesses the recoverability of the assets by estimating whether the Company will recover its carrying value through the undiscounted future cash flows generated by the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. Based on this analysis, if the Company does not believe that it will be able to recover the carrying value of the asset, the Company records an impairment loss to the extent that the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset. If any assumptions, projections or estimates regarding any asset change in the future, the Company may have to record an impairment to reduce the net book value of such individual asset.

 

When facts and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of definite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable, the Company assesses the recoverability of the carrying value by preparing estimates of sales volume and the resulting profit and cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset or asset group and its eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, the Company recognizes an impairment loss. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value. The Company uses a variety of methodologies to determine the fair value of these assets, including discounted cash flow models, which are consistent with the assumptions hypothetical marketplace participants would use.

 

Goodwill is subject to annual impairment tests and interim impairment tests if impairment indicators are present. The Company performs the annual impairment test during the third quarter each year. The impairment tests require the Company to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test. The Company is not required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless it determines, based on a qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. If it is determined that it is more likely than not, or if the Company elects not to perform a qualitative assessment, the Company proceeds with the quantitative assessment. Under the quantitative test, if the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, then goodwill of the reporting unit is considered to not be impaired. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, then an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess, up to the value of the goodwill.

 

26

 

Revenue Recognition

 

The Company generates its revenues by providing merchandising services to its clients. Revenues are recognized when the Company satisfies a performance obligation by transferring services promised in a contract to a customer and in an amount that reflects the consideration that the Company expects to receive in exchange for those services. Performance obligations in the Company’s contracts represent distinct or separate services that we provide to the Company’s customers; generally, the Company’s contracts have a single performance obligation. If, at the outset of an arrangement, the Company determines that a contract with enforceable rights and obligations does not exist, revenues are deferred until all criteria for an enforceable contract are met.

 

The Company’s merchandising services are provided over time, generally on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, and transaction price is based on the contractually-specified rate-per-driver metric (i.e., rate per hour, rate per store visit, or rate per unit stocked). The Company recognizes revenues for its contracts based on the contractually-specified rate-per-driver metric(s) utilizing the right-to-invoice practical expedient because the Company has a right to consideration for merchandising services completed to date. All of the Company’s contracts have a duration of one year or less and over 90% of the Company’s contracts are completed in less than 30 days.

 

Customer deposits, which are considered advances on future work, are deferred and recorded as revenue in the period in which the services are provided.

 

Allowance for Credit Losses

 

The Company continually monitors the collectability of its accounts receivable based upon current client credit information and financial condition. Balances that are deemed to be uncollectible after the Company has attempted reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the bad debt allowance and a credit to accounts receivable. Accounts receivable balances, net of any applicable reserves or allowances, are stated at the amount that management expects to collect from the outstanding balances. The Company provides for probable uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to bad debt allowance based in part on management’s assessment of the current status of individual accounts.

 

Based on management’s assessment, the Company established an allowance for credit losses of $1.5 million and $1.6 million at December 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively. Bad debt expense was $0.3 million and $1.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. 

 

Internal Use Software

 

The Company capitalizes certain costs associated with its internally developed software. The Company capitalizes the costs of materials and services incurred in developing or obtaining internal use software and such costs include, but are not limited to: the cost to purchase software, the cost to write program code, and payroll and related benefits and travel expenses for those employees who are directly involved with and who devote time to the Company’s software development projects. Capitalization of such costs begins during the application development stage once the preliminary project stage is complete, management authorizes and commits to funding the project, and it is probable that the project will be completed and that the software will be used to perform the function intended. Capitalization ceases when the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended purpose. Costs incurred during preliminary project and post-implementation stages, as well as software maintenance and training costs, are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

 

The Company capitalized approximately $1.0 million and $1.5 million of costs related to software developed for internal use in 2023 and 2022, respectively, and recognized approximately $1.3 million of amortization of capitalized software for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

See the sections titled "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Recent Accounting Pronouncements” and "—Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted” in Note 2 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.

 

27

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Funding Requirements

 

Management believes that based upon the continuation of the Company's existing credit facilities, projected results of operations, vendor payment requirements and other financing available to the Company (including amounts due to affiliates), sources of cash availability should be manageable and sufficient to support ongoing operations over the next year. However, delays in collection of receivables due from any of the Company's major clients, a significant reduction in business from such clients, or a negative economic downturn could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, cash resources and ongoing ability to fund operations.

 

The Company is a party to various domestic and international credit facilities. These various domestic and international credit facilities require compliance with their respective financial covenants. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company was in compliance with all financial covenants under these arrangements. See Note 4 to the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements, Debt, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was $6.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and net cash used in operating activities was $5.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The year-over-year increase in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily due to improved working capital management.

 

Net cash used in investing activities for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, was $2.3 million and $1.8 million, respectively. The net cash used in investing activities was primarily attributable to capitalization of internal use software.

 

Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $3.0 million compared to $3.5 million provided in 2022. The year-over-year decrease in net cash provided by financing activities during 2023 was primarily due to repayment of lines of credit.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2023, the company experienced a net increase in cash and cash equivalents amounting to approximately $1.4 million. This positive change reflects foreign exchange rate fluctuations, which contributed a decrease of $0.2 million. In contrast, the prior fiscal year ending December 31, 2022, recorded a net decrease in cash and cash equivalents of $4.1 million, inclusive of a $0.8 million impact due to foreign exchange rate variations. These figures highlight the significant turnaround in our liquidity position, driven by both improved operational outcomes and favorable exchange rate movements.

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

The Company is a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act and is not required to provide the information required under this item.

 

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 

 

See Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 

 

None

 

28

 

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

 

Management's Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) or 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission and to ensure that information required to be disclosed is accumulated and communicated to management, including our principal executive and financial officers, to allow timely decisions regarding disclosure. The Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, as our principal financial and accounting officer, have reviewed the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K and, based on their evaluation, have concluded that the disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of such date.

 

Managements Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

 

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not detect or prevent misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of the effectiveness to future periods are subject to risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

Management utilized the criteria established in the Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) to conduct an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023.  Based on this evaluation, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2023.

 

Remediation of previous year Material Weakness in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

In the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022, Management identified a material weakness within our internal control over financial reporting, specifically relating to non-recurring transactions with international components. Although this deficiency did not directly lead to any material misstatements in our financial statements for that year or interim periods, it raised the possibility that such misstatements could remain undetected.

 

In response, during 2023, we implemented our previously disclosed remediation plan that included the appointment of a new Chief Financial Officer, a new Vice President Controller, the creation of a Director of Accounting position and the engagement of an external consultant specializing in SOX compliance. Additionally, we implemented a review process and controls with more precise levels of review for non-recurring transactions with international components including policies and procedures to ensure documentary evidence is maintained, particularly for management review controls.

 

These controls were in place as of December 31, 2023, and based on management’s evaluation, the previously identified material weakness has been remediated.

 

Changes in Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting

 

Except for the changes in connection with our implementation of the remediation plan discussed above, there was no changes in the Company's internal controls over financial reporting that occurred during the Company's quarter ended December 31, 2023, that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal controls over financial reporting.

 

29

 

 

Item 9B. Other Information 

 

None.

 

 

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

Not applicable.

 

PART III

 

Reference is made below to SGRP’s definitive Proxy Statement respecting its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders currently scheduled to be held in April of 2024, as and when filed with the SEC, which SGRP plans to file pursuant to Regulation 14A in April of 2024, but not later than 120 days after the end of the Company’s 2024 fiscal year (the "2024 Proxy Statement”), For clarity (and without limitation), information appearing in the sections in such 2024 Proxy Statement entitled "PROPOSAL 3 – ADVISORY VOTE ON EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION”, "PROPOSAL 4 – ADVISORY VOTE ON THE FREQUENCY THAT THE CORPORATION HOLDS THE ADVISORY VOTE ON EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION”, and "REPORT OF THE AUDIT COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS” shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this Annual Report.

 

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

Reference is made to the information set forth under the captions "The Board of Directors of the Corporation”, "Executives and Officers of the Corporation”, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and "Corporate Governance” in the 2024 Proxy Statement.

 

Item 11. Executive Compensation 

 

Reference is made to the information set forth under the captions "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management”, "Executive Compensation, Directors and Other Information”, "Executive Compensation, Equity Awards and Options” and "Compensation Plans” in the 2024 Proxy Statement.

 

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 

 

Reference is made to the information set forth under the captions "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management”, "Executive Compensation, Equity Awards and Options” and "Compensation Plans” in the 2024 Proxy Statement.

 

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence 

 

Reference is made to the information set forth under the caption "Transactions with Related Persons, Promoters and Certain Control Persons” in the 2024 Proxy Statement.

 

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

Reference is made to the information set forth under the caption "PROPOSAL 2 – RATIFICATION, ON AN ADVISORY BASIS, OF THE APPOINTMENT OF BDO USA, LLP AS THE COMPANY’S PRINCIPAL INDEPENDENT ACCOUNTANTS” in the 2024 Proxy Statement.

 

30

 

 

 

PART IV

 

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

F.     Index to Financial Statements filed as part of this report:

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (BDO USA, P.C.; Troy, Michigan; PCAOB ID#243)

40

  
Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss) Income for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 202242
  

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022

43
  

Consolidated Stockholders' Equity for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

44
  

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

45
  

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

46

 

 

 

3.

Exhibits

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

   

3.1

 

Certificate of Incorporation of SPAR Group, Inc. (referred to therein under its former name of PIA Merchandising Services, Inc.), as amended, incorporated by reference to the Corporation’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 33-80429), as filed with the SEC on December 14, 1995, and the Certificate of Amendment filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on July 8, 1999 (which, among other things, changes the Corporation’s name to SPAR Group, Inc.), (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Corporation’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration No. 33-80429) as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2021).

   

3.2

 

Certificate of Elimination of the Certificate of Designation of Series "A" Preferred Stock of SPAR Group, Inc., adopted as of January 25, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022).

   

3.3

 

Certificate of Designation of Series "B” Convertible Preferred Stock of SPAR Group, Inc., adopted January 25, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022).

   

3.4

 

Amended and Restated By-Laws of SPAR Group, Inc., as adopted, restated, effective and dated January 18, 2019 and as further amended through January 25, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022). 

   

3.5

 

Amended and Restated Charter of the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of SPAR Group, Inc., adopted, restated, effective and dated August 12, 2020, (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the First Amendment to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on April, 29, 2021 ("SGRP's 2020 Annual Report Amendment"). 

   

3.6

 

Charter of the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of SPAR Group, Inc., Amended, Restated and Dated (as of) August 11, 2020, (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.5 to the First Amendment to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on April, 29, 2021 ("SGRP's 2020 Annual Report Amendment").

 

31

 

 

3.7

 

Charter of the Governance Committee of the Board of Directors of SPAR Group, Inc., Dated (as of) April 23, 2020 and As Amended through March 18, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.6 to the First Amendment to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on April, 29, 2021 ("SGRP's 2020 Annual Report Amendment").

   

3.08

 

SPAR Group, Inc. Statement of Policy Respecting Stockholder Communications with Directors, adopted on May 18, 2004 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on May 27, 2004). 

   

3.9

 

SPAR Group, Inc. Statement of Policy Regarding Director Qualifications and Nominations, adopted on May 18, 2004 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on May 27, 2004).

   

3.10

 

SPAR Group, Inc. Statement of Policy Respecting Complaints and Communications by Employees and Others as Amended and Restated as of August 13, 2015 (also known as the Whistleblower Policy) (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018). 

   

3.11

 

SGRP 2022 Stock Repurchase Program as approved by SGRP's Audit Committee and adopted by its Board of Directors on May 12, 2022 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on May 24, 2022).

   

4.1

 

Form of SGRP's Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Pre-Effective Amendment No. 1 to its Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-162657) as filed with the SEC on February 7, 2011).

   

4.2

 

Form of SGRP's Series B Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to SGRP’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC on April 17, 2023).

   

4.3 

 

Registration Rights Agreement entered into as of January 21, 1992, by and between SGRP (as successor to, by merger in 1996 with, PIA Holding Corporation, f/k/a RVM Holding Corporation, the California Limited Partnership, The Riordan Foundation and Creditanstalt-Bankverine (incorporated by reference to the Form S-1).

   

4.4

 

Summary Description and Prospectus dated August 24, 2009, respecting the SPAR Group, Inc. 2008 Stock Compensation Plan, as amended (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99(a)(1)(G) to SGRP's SC TO-I).

   

10.1

 

2021 Stock Compensation Plan of SPAR Group, Inc., effective as of August 12, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Appendix A to the Corporation’s Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on July 13, 2021).

   

10.2

 

2020 Stock Compensation Plan of SPAR Group, Inc., effective as of January 19, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Annex B to the Corporation’s Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on December 10, 2020).

   

10.3

 

2018 Stock Compensation Plan of SGRP, effective as of May 2, 2018 (incorporated by reference to Annex A to SGRP's Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on April 18, 2018).

   

10.4

 

2008 Stock Compensation Plan, effective as of May 29, 2008, and as amended through May 28, 2009 (the "SGRP 2008 Plan") (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K dated June 4, 2009, as filed with the SEC on June 4, 2009).

   

10.5

 

2000 Stock Option Plan, as amended through May 16, 2006 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2006, as filed with the SEC on November 14, 2006).

   

10.6

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of April 3, 2023, between SGRP and Kori G. Belzer (as filed herewith).

   

10.7

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of March 24, 2022, between SGRP and Kori G. Belzer (as filed herewith).

 

32

 

 

10.8

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of April 3, 2023, between SGRP and Antonio Calisto Pato (as filed herewith).

   

10.9

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of April 3, 2023, between SGRP and William Linnane (as filed herewith).

   

10.10

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of March 24, 2022, between SGRP and William Linnane (as filed herewith).

   

10.11

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of April 3, 2023, between SGRP and Ron Lutz (as filed herewith).

   

10.12

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of March 24, 2022, between SGRP and Ron Lutz (as filed herewith).

   

10.13

 

Phantom Stock Unit Grant and Agreement entered into and is effective as of April 3, 2023, between SGRP and Mike Matacunas (as filed herewith).

   

10.14

 

Inducement RSU Contract between SPAR Group, Inc. and Antonio Calisto Pato dated March 10, 2023 (as filed herewith).

   

10.15

 

Inducement RSU Contract, between SPAR Group, Inc. and William Linnane, dated August 2, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 to the Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on April 15, 2022).

   

10.16

 

Inducement RSU Contract, between SPAR Group, Inc. and Ron Lutz, dated August 2, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.7 to the Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on April 15, 2022).

   

10.17

 

Inducement Nonqualified Stock Option Contract, between SPAR Group, Inc. and Mike Matacunas, dated February 22, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Corporation’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration No. 33-80429) as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2021).

   

10.18

 

Inducement RSU Contract, between SPAR Group, Inc. and Mike Matacunas, dated February 22, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.9 to the Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on April 15, 2022).

   

10.19

 

Inducement Nonqualified Stock Option Contract, between SPAR Group, Inc. and Fay DeVriese, dated August 31, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.4 to the Corporation’s Registration Statement on Form S-8 (Registration No. 33-80429) as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2021).

   

10.20

 

2001 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Proxy Statement for SGRP's annual stockholders meeting held on August 2, 2001, as filed with the SEC on July 12, 2001).

   

10.21

 

2001 Consultant Stock Purchase Plan (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Proxy Statement for SGRP's Annual meeting held on August 2, 2001, as filed with the SEC on July 12, 2001).

   

10.22

 

Consulting Agreement dated January 27, 2022, effective February 1, 2022, between SGRP and Thenablers, Ltd., which is wholly owned by and will provide certain consulting services from Panagiotis ("Panos") N. Lazaretos (who retired as a SGRP director effective January 25, 2022) to SGRP regarding global sales and new markets’ expansion (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022).

   

10.23

 

Consulting Agreement dated January 25, 2022, and effective January 26, 2022, between SGRP and James R. Brown, Sr. (who retired as a SGRP director effective January 25, 2022) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022).

   

10.24

 

Change of Control, Voting and Restricted Stock Agreement, effective January 28, 2022, by and among SGRP, Robert G. Brown, William H. Bartels, SPAR Administrative Services, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and SPAR Business Services, Inc., a Nevada corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 28, 2022).

   

 

33

 

 

10.25

 

Change of Control Severance Agreement between SGRP and Antonio Calisto Pato dated as of February 28, 2023 (as filed herewith).

   

10.26

 

Corrective Global Amendment to Change of Control Severance Agreements between SGRP, Fay DeVriese, William Linnane and Ron Lutz made and entered into and effective as of August 10, 2022 (as filed herewith).

   

10.27

 

Amended and Restated Change of Control Severance Agreement (the "CICSA”) between SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP”) and Fay DeVriese made and entered into effective as of August 13, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2021, as filed with the SEC on November 15, 2021).

   

10.28

 

Change of Control Severance Agreement between SGRP and William Linnane dated as of July 12, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.18 to the Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on April 15, 2022. 

   

10.29

 

Change of Control Severance Agreement between SGRP and Ron Lutz dated as of July 12, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.19 to the Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on April 15, 2022).

   

10.30

 

Change of Control Severance Agreement by and among SPAR Group, Inc., SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. and Mike Matacunas dated as of January 26, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on February 16, 2021).

   

10.31

 

Amended and Restated Change of Control Severance Agreement between Kori G. Belzer and SGRP, dated as of August 10, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to SGRP's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as filed with the SEC on August 15, 2022).

   

10.32

 

Amended and Restated Change of Control Severance Agreement between Lawrence David Swift and SGRP dated as of August 10, 2022 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on August 14, 2022).

   

10.33

 

Trademark License Agreement dated as of July 8, 1999, by and between SPAR InfoTech, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2002, as filed with the SEC on March 31, 2003).

   

10.34

 

Trademark License Agreement dated as of July 8, 1999, by and between SPAR Marketing Services, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2002, as filed with the SEC on March 31, 2003).

   

10.35

 

Business Manager Agreement (re joint ownership of certain software) dated as of July 8, 1999, among SPAR Business Services, Inc. (f/k/a SPAR Marketing Services, Inc.), SPAR InfoTech, Inc., and SPAR Marketing Force, Inc.(incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 1999, as filed with the SEC on May 1, 2000).

   

10.36

 

Joint Venture Agreement dated as of September 13, 2016, by and between JK Consultoria Empresarial Ltda.-ME, a limitada formed under the laws of Brazil, Earth Investments, LLC, a Nevada limited liability company, and SGRP Brasil Participações Ltda., a limitada formed under the laws of Brazil (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018).

   

10.37

 

Joint Venture Contract dated July 4, 2014, among SPAR China Inc., established and existing under the laws of Hong Kong, Wedone Shanghai, Co., Ltd., organized and existing under the laws of P.R. China, Shanghai Gold Pack Investment Management Co., Ltd., organized and existing under the laws of P.R. China, and XU Gang, an Australian citizen (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, as filed with the SEC on April 17, 2017).

 

34

 

 

10.38

 

Joint Venture Agreement dated as of September 3, 2012, by and between Combined Manufacturers National (Pty) Ltd and SGRP Meridian (Pty) Ltd, respecting SGRP's additional consolidated subsidiary in South Africa (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2013).

   

10.39

 

Joint Venture Agreement dated as of August 30, 2012, by and between National Merchandising of America, Inc., a Georgia corporation, SPAR NMS Holdings, Inc., a Nevada corporation and consolidated subsidiary of SGRP, and National Merchandising Services, LLC, a Nevada limited liability company and consolidated subsidiary of SGRP (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as filed with the SEC on November 9, 2012).

   

10.40

 

Joint Venture Agreement dated as of August 2, 2011, by and among Todopromo, S.A. de C.V., Sepeme, S.A. de C.V., Top Promoservicios, S.A. de C.V., Conapad, S.C., Mr. Juan Francisco Medina Domenzain, Mr. Juan Francisco Medina Staines, Mr. Jorge Carlos Medina Staines, Mr. Julio Cesar Hernandez Vanegas, and SPAR Group International, Inc., respecting SGRP's consolidated subsidiary in Mexico (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2013).

   

10.41

 

Joint Venture Agreement dated as of March 29, 2006, by and between FACE AND COSMETIC TRADING SERVICES PTY LIMITED and SPAR International Ltd., respecting the Company's subsidiary in Australia (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2006, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2007).

   

10.42

 

Joint Venture Shareholders Agreement between Friedshelf 401 (Proprietary) Limited, SPAR Group International, Inc., Derek O'Brien, Brian Mason, SMD Meridian CC, Meridian Sales & Merchandising (Western Cape) CC, Retail Consumer Marketing CC, Merhold Holding Trust in respect of SGRP Meridian (Proprietary) Limited, dated as of June 25, 2004, respecting SGRP's consolidated subsidiary in South Africa (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2004, as filed with the SEC on April 12, 2005).

   

10.43

 

$100,000.00 secured Promissory Note from SMF to Richard Justus dated as of January 1, 2018 (the "Resource Justus Note") (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.44

 

Securities Pledge and Escrow Agreement securing the Resource Justus Note between SMF and Richard Justus dated as of January 1, 2018 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

 

35

 

 

10.45

 

Executive Officer Employment Terms and Severance Agreement between RPI and Richard Justus dated as of January 1, 2018 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.46

 

Stock Purchase Agreement as of October 13, 2017, by and between SMF, as buyer, and Richard Justus, as seller (the "Resource Justus SPA") (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.47

 

Guaranty of the Resource Paulk Note by SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP"), in favor of Joseph L. Paulk dated as of January 1, 2018 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.48

 

$2,600,000.00 secured promissory note from SMF to Joseph L. Paulk dated as of January 1, 2018 (the "Resource Paulk Note") (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.49

 

Securities Pledge and Escrow Agreement securing the Resource Paulk Note between SMF and Joseph L. Paulk dated as of January 1, 2018 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.50

 

Stock Purchase Agreement as of October 13, 2017, by and between the SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), as buyer and Joseph L. Paulk, as seller (the "Resource Paulk SPA") (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 16, 2018).

   

10.51

 

Collateral Assignment (Security Agreement) (Trademarks) effective: April 10, 2019, from SPAR Trademarks, Inc., to North Mill, (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the SEC on April 24, 2019).

   

10.52

 

Collateral Pledge Agreement dated as of April 10, 2019, by SGRP, the US NM Borrower and SPAR Acquisition, Inc., in favor of North Mill, (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the SEC on April 24, 2019).

   

10.53

 

Corporate Guaranty dated as of April 10, 2019, from the NM Guarantors to North Mill, (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the SEC on April 24, 2019).

   

10.54

 

Loan and Security Agreement entered into as of April 10, 2019, by and among North Mill Capital LLC, a Delaware limited liability company ("North Mill"), SPAR Marketing Force, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the "US NM Borrower"), SPAR Canada Company, an unlimited company organized under the laws of Nova Scotia (the "Canadian NM Borrower"), and each of SPAR Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("SGRP"), and SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Trademarks, Inc., and SPAR Assembly & Installation, Inc., each a Nevada corporation (including SGRP, each as a "NM Guarantor"), (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, as filed with the SEC on April 24, 2019).

   

10.55

 

Waiver and Modification Agreement entered in as of January 4, 2021, and effective as of December 31, 2020 (the "Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties" (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on January 11, 2021).

 

36

 

 

10.56

 

Second Modification Agreement dated as of March 22, 2021, and effective as of April 1, 2021 (the "Second Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), d/b/a SLR Business Credit, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties") (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to SGRP’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on March 29, 2021).

   

10.57

 

Third Modification Agreement dated as of December 16, 2021, and effective as of December 1, 2021 (the "Third Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), d/b/a SLR Business Credit, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties") (as filed herewith).

   

10.58

 

Fourth Modification Agreement dated as of July 1, 2022, and effective as of June 30, 2022 (the "Fourth Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), d/b/a SLR Business Credit, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties") (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, as filed with the SEC on August 15, 2022).

   

10.59

 

Fifth Modification Agreement entered into as of August 9, 2022 (the "Fifth Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), d/b/a SLR Business Credit, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties") (as filed herewith).

   

10.60

 

Sixth Modification Agreement entered into as of February 1, 2023 (the "Sixth Modification Agreement"), among North Mill Capital, LLC ("NM"), d/b/a SLR Business Credit, SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP") and certain of its direct and indirect subsidiaries in the United States and Canada, namely SPAR Marketing Force, Inc. ("SMF"), and SPAR Canada Company ("SCC"), and SPAR Canada, Inc., SPAR Acquisition, Inc., SPAR Assembly and Installation, Inc., and SPAR Trademarks, Inc. (together with SGRP, each a "NM Guarantor" and collectively, the "NM Guarantors", and together with SMF and SCC, each a "NM Loan Party" and collectively, the "NM Loan Parties") (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on March 2, 2023).

   

10.61

 

US$28 million Fourth Amended and Restated Revolving Credit Master Promissory Note executed and delivered by SMF to NM and dated as of February 1, 2023 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to SGRP’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on March 2, 2023).

   

10.62

 

CDN$2 million Fourth Amended and Restated Revolving Credit Master Promissory Note executed and delivered by SCC to NM and dated as of February 1, 2023 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to SGRP’s Current Report on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on March 2, 2023).

   

10.63

 

Letter of Offer dated September 29, 2011, and General Business Factoring Agreement (undated) between Oxford Funding Pty Ltd and SPARFACTS Pty Ltd (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2013).

   

10.64

 

Limited Mutual Release Agreement, dated as of January 18, 2019, among Robert G. Brown, William H. Bartels, Christiaan Olivier, Lorrence T. Kellar, Jack W. Partridge, Arthur B. Drogue and R. Eric McCarthey (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 25, 2019).

 

37

 

 

10.65

 

Stipulation of Dismissal, dated as of January 18, 2019 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to SGRP's Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on January 25, 2019).

   

10.66

 

Text of Letter to SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP"), from the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. ("Nasdaq"), dated July 16, 2021 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 to SGRP’s Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on July 30, 2021).

   

10.67

 

Text of Letter to SPAR Group, Inc. ("SGRP"), from the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. ("Nasdaq"), dated June 15, 2021, stating that SGRP no longer complies with Nasdaq's majority independent director and audit committee requirements as set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5605 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 17.1 to SGRP’s Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC on June 22, 2021).

   

14.1

 

SPAR Group Code of Ethical Conduct for its Directors, Executives, Officers, Employees, Consultants and other Representatives Amended and Restated (as of) March 15, 2018 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, as filed with the SEC on April 2, 2018).

   

14.2

 

Statement of Policy Regarding Personal Securities Transactions in SGRP Stock and Non-Public Information, as adopted, restated, effective and dated as of May 1, 2004, and as further amended through March 10, 2011 (incorporated by reference to SGRP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2010, as filed with the SEC on March 15, 2011).

   

21.1

 

List of Subsidiaries (as filed herewith).

   

23.1

 

Consent of BDO USA, P.C. (as filed herewith).

   

31.1

 

Certification of Chief Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (as filed herewith).

   

31.2

 

Certification of Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (as filed herewith).

   

32.1

 

Certification of Chief Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (as filed herewith).

   

32.2

 

Certification of Chief Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (as filed herewith).

   

101.INS*

 

Inline XBRL Instance

   

101.SCH*

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema

   

101.CAL*

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation

   

101.DEF*

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition

   

101.LAB*

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Labels

   

101.PRE*

 

Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation

   

104

 

Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)

 

 

* XBRL information is furnished and not filed or a part of a registration statement or prospectus for purposes of sections 11 or 12 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, is deemed not filed for purposes of section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and otherwise is not subject to liability under these sections.

 

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

 

None.

 

38

 

 

SIGNATURES 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

 

SPAR Group, Inc.

 
  

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Michael R. Matacunas

 

 

 

Michael R. Matacunas

 

 

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

 
    

 

Dated as of: April [ ], 2024

 

 

KNOW ALL THESE PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Antonio Calisto Pato and Michael R. Matacunas and each of them, jointly and severally, his attorneys-in-fact, each with full power of substitution, for each of them in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Report on Form 10-K, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that each said attorneys-in-fact or his substitute or substitutes, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities indicated.

 

SIGNATURE

 

TITLE

   

/s/ Michael R. Matacunas

 President, Chief Executive Officer and Director,

     Michael R. Matacunas

 

(Principal Executive Officer)

Dated as of: April 1st, 2024

 

 

 

  
/s/ James R. Gillis Director
     James R. Gillis  
Dated as of: April 1st, 2024  
   
/s/ John Bode 

Director

     John Bode

  
Dated as of: April 1st, 2024

 

 

 

  
/s/ Linda Houston 

Director

     Linda Houston

  
Dated as of: April 1st, 2024

 

 

 

  
/s/ William H. Bartels 

Director

     William H. Bartels

 

 
Dated as of: April 1st, 2024

 

 

 

  

 

  
/s/ Antonio Calisto Pato Chief Financial Officer,
     Antonio Calisto Pato Treasurer and Secretary (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
Dated as of: April 1st, 2024  

 

 

 

 

 

 

39

 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

Shareholders and Board of the Directors

SPAR Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Auburn Hills, Michigan

 

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of SPAR Group, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023, and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

Critical Audit Matter

 

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

 

 

40

 

 

Revenue Recognition

 

As indicated in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company generates revenues by providing merchandising services to its customers, generally on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. The Company recognizes revenues as the services are performed based on the contractually-specified rate-per-driver metric(s) (i.e., rate per hour, rate per store visit or rate per unit stocked). For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company’s net revenues were $262.7 million.

 

We identified revenue recognition from merchandising services as a critical audit matter due to the large volume of customer contracts and transactions. The principal consideration for our determination is the increased extent of auditor effort involved in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence related to the Company’s revenue recognition. 

 

The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included: 

 

 

Testing the accuracy and existence of revenue recognized for a sample of revenue transactions by obtaining and inspecting source documents such as customer contracts, invoices, cash receipts, and other documents for each applicable per-driver metric (i.e., hours worked, store visits, or units stocked).

 

 

Testing the cut off of revenue recognized for a sample of revenue transactions prior to and subsequent to December 31, 2023.

 

 

Performing analytical procedures to evaluate trends in the Company’s recognized revenues.

 

/s/ BDO USA, P.C. 

 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2013.

 

Troy, Michigan USA

 

April 1, 2024

 

 

 

41

 
 

 

SPAR Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive (Loss) Income

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

  

Year Ended December 31,

 
  

2023

  

2022

 

Net revenues

 $262,747  $261,268 

Related Party - Cost of revenues

  5,197   8,804 

Cost of revenues

  202,070   201,452 

Gross profit

  55,480   51,012 

Selling, general and administrative expense

  43,673   41,135 

Loss on sale of business

  408   - 

Depreciation and amortization

  2,001   2,033 

Impairment of goodwill

  -   2,458 

Operating income

  9,398   5,386 

Interest expense

  1,919   965 

Other expense (income), net

  346   (482)

Income before income tax expense

  7,133   4,903 
         

Income tax expense

  2,357   2,777 

Net income

  4,776   2,126 

Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

  (874)  (2,858)

Net Income (loss) attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 $3,902  $(732)

Basic earnings (loss) per common share attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 $0.17  $(0.03)

Diluted earnings (loss) per common share attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 $0.16  $(0.03)

Weighted average common shares – basic

  23,333   22,110 

Weighted average common shares – diluted

  24,455   22,110 
         

Net income

 $4,776  $2,126 

Other comprehensive (loss):

        
         

Foreign currency translation adjustments

  1,283   (391)

Comprehensive income

  6,059   1,735 

Comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interest

  (317)  (2,380)

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to SPAR Group, Inc.

 $5,742  $(645)

 

See accompanying notes to the Company's consolidated financial statements.

 

42

 

 

 

SPAR Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

  December 31, 2023  December 31, 2022 

Assets

        

Current assets:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

 $10,719  $9,345 

Accounts receivable, net

  59,776   63,714 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  5,614   7,861 

Total current assets

  76,109   80,920 
         

Property and equipment, net

  2,871   3,261 

Operating lease right-of-use assets

  2,323   969 

Goodwill

  1,382   1,708 

Intangible assets, net

  1,180   2,040 

Deferred income taxes

  4,687   3,766 

Other assets

  1,729   1,934 

Total assets

 $90,281  $94,598 
         

Liabilities and equity

        

Current liabilities:

        

Accounts payable

 $9,488  $10,588 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

  15,274   20,261 

Due to affiliates

  3,205   2,964 

Customer incentives and deposits

  1,905   2,399 

Lines of credit and short-term loans

  17,530   17,980 

Current portion of operating lease liabilities

  1,163   363 

Total current liabilities

  48,565   54,555 

Operating lease liabilities, less current portion

  1,160   606 

Long-term debt

  310   1,376 

Total liabilities

  50,035   56,537 
         

Commitments and contingencies – See Note 6

          
         

Equity:

        

SPAR Group, Inc. equity

        

Preferred stock, Series - A, $.01 par value:

        

Authorized and available shares– 2,445,598 Issued and outstanding shares– None

      

Preferred stock, Series - B. $.01 par value:

        

Authorized and available shares– 2,000,000 Issued and outstanding shares– 650,000 at December 31, 2023 and 854,753 at December 31, 2022

  7   9 

Common stock, $.01 par value:

        

Authorized shares – 47,000,000 Issued and outstanding shares – 23,446,444 at December 31, 2023 and 23,055,633 at December 31, 2022

  232   229 

Treasury stock, at cost 205,485 shares at December 31, 2023 and 205,485 Shares at December 31, 2022

  (285)  (285)

Additional paid-in capital

  21,004   20,708 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

  (3,341)  (4,941)

Retained earnings

  10,609   6,707 

Total SPAR Group, Inc. equity

  28,226   22,427 

Non-controlling interest

  12,020   15,634 

Total equity

  40,246   38,061 

Total liabilities and equity

 $90,281  $94,598 

See accompanying notes to the Company's consolidated financial statements.

43

 
 

SPAR Group, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity

 

(In thousands)

 

  

Common Stock

  

Series B Preferred Stock

  

Treasury Stock

  

Additional Paid-In

  

Accumulated Other Comprehensive

  

Retained

  

Non- Controlling

  

Total

 
  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Capital

  

Loss

  

Earnings

  

Interest

  

Equity

 
                                             

Balance at January 1, 2022

  21,320  $213   -  $-   54  $(104) $17,231  $(5,028) $7,439  $17,597  $37,348 
                                             

Share-based compensation

                    346            346 

Exercise of stock options

  74                  (118)           (118)

Majority shareholder agreement

        2,000   20         3,249            3,269 

Conversion of Series B convertible preferred stock

  1,718   16   (1,145)  (11)                    5 

Control change of NCI

                             (2,558)  (2,558)

Distribution to non-controlling investors

                             (1,785)  (1,785)

Repurchases of common stock

              151   (181)              (181)

Retirement of shares

  (151)                              

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

                       87      (478)  (391)

Net (loss) income

                          (732)  2,858   2,126 

Balance at December 31, 2022

  22,961  $229   855  $9   205  $(285) $20,708  $(4,941) $6,707  $15,634  $38,061 
                                             

Share-based compensation

                    297            297 

Conversion of Series B convertible preferred stock

  307   3   (205)  (2)        (